Raw Materials Natural and Synthetic Musk

Natural and Synthetic Musk

03/06/14 16:34:24 (39 comments)

by: Sergey Borisov


One can read the word “musk” in almost every perfume description. What do you imagine when you read it? Is it a nice and gentle, almost inaudible smell? Or a repulsive animal-urine-like smell?

Siberian kabarga (musk deer), wikipedia

Historically, the word “musk” is derived from the Sanskrit muṣká, which means “testicle,” and refers to the fragrant secret of the apocrine glands of the male musk deer (Moschus moschiferus), a small (10-13 kg) and timid deer which differs by its fangs, long ears and lack of horns. Different species of musk deer live in the mountainous taiga and the mountains of thirteen Eurasian countries: Russia's Far East and Siberia, Mongolia, China, Vietnam, Korea, Nepal, India, Afghanistan and others. Male deer use musk to mark their own territory and to attract females for mating in December-January. After mating, the hunting season for musk deer opens in Russia and lasts through February and March; male musk deer hunting is limited to 1,500 heads per year (2009) and doe hunting is prohibited.

Musk was the main product of deer hunting. The hides were subproducts, while the meat was not used because of its strong musky smell. A dead animal's gland (“navel” or “pod”) was cut with a piece of hide, and quickly dried in the sun or over a hot stove. The smell in the process is terribly urinous. Dried pods with a weight of 10 to 30 grams were the standard product form. To be used in perfumery, the pods were soaked in water to remove the hide and skin, and then the black-brown fatty granules of musk were taken. Then the powdered granules were infused in ethanol to obtain musk tincture, usually 3-5% by weight. For example, Jacques Guerlain and Ernest Beaux used musk tincture instead of pure ethanol for dilution of concentrate in their recipes, as the last step of perfume preparation. In the Muslim world, musk powder mixed with sandalwood oil made Musk Attars.

photo from wikipedia


"The best quality was Tonquin musk from Tibet and China, followed by Assam and Nepal musk, while Carbadine musk from some Russian and Chinese Himalayan regions was considered inferior. To obtain 1 kg of musk grains, between 30 and 50 animals had to be sacrificed, and thus musk tinctures were very expensive perfumery ingredients. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the price of Tonquin musk grains was about twice their weight in gold. But despite this high price, musk tinctures were still used in perfumery till about 1979, when musk deer were protected from extinction by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and complimentary national laws. Today, natural musk, the quantity legally permitted by CITES as well as that poached and illegally traded, continues to be used almost only in traditional east Asian medicine." (Scent and Chemistry: The Molecular World of Perfumes by Gunther Ohloff, Wilhelm Pickenhagen, Philip Kraft)
 

Musk was one of the commodities traded on the London Stock Exchange in the 19th century, so the prices were quite fluid, depending on musk amounts shipped from Shanghai.

Evident hygienic reasons do not allow the use of natural musk in perfumery and cosmetic products.

However, natural musk still has wide usage in folk medicine as a biostimulant and immunomodulator, as an antidote and remedy for anemia, depression, impotence, infertility, for the treatment of the kidneys, liver and bone marrow, for the treatment of wounds. The typical Russian way is a musk tincture in an ethanol-water mixture, better known as vodka. Dried and powdered brown granules of musk gland (one gram) are poured into half-liter of vodka (ok, 499 grams), then stirred and left in a dark place for a month, being shaking occasionally. The tincture is to be taken before meals, by 5 ml in the morning, then followed by water. In combination with UV irradiation of the blood and vitamin preparations, this tincture treatment is patented by a group of Irkutsk doctors.

These medical beliefs have deep historical roots—musk was used in ancient Ayurveda, from which sophisticated recipes partially succeeded into Tibetan and Chinese medicine. Due to the fact that the musk was rare and was considered a universal medicine, it was one of the "king's gifts," a sort of tax in the six and seventh centuries AD. For example, al-Biruni reported in Mineralogy that the Shah of Iran Khosrow II Parviz had gold, silver, and about six tons of musk in his treasuries.


Gradually musk acquired international fame as an aphrodisiac, when Indian and Chinese musk caravans became available to Persian, Byzantine, and Arabic healers and perfumers; its sex appeal and mysterious reputation grew along with the price from the sixth to the ninth centuries. Anti-aging properties and the ability to effectively treat infertility and impotence were needed by some old rulers, whose power was hereditary. However, natural musk can be called a pheromone in the classical sense only for the musk deer—my multiple experiences with musk showed that musk itself has never been a trigger of human sexual behavior .

WHAT DOES  NATURAL DEER MUSK SMELL LIKE?

In its pure form, the dried secretion has a sharp and repulsive animalic smell, with bestial and ammonia accents that resemble urine and castoreum. Weak musk tincture allows for more exploration, in which it shows the rich variety of additional accents that appear when the bestial spirit wanes. Something attractive, lively and vicious appears after the repulsive smell of ammonia. "Chemical" is replaced by "warm" and "natural"; something sharp and pugent is replaced by sweet, leather-like and balsamic, and also castoreum-like, somewhat fatty, chocolaty, earthy, powdery, dry and oily, woody, wet and sweaty.


There are some other musky animals. Biologists have tagged with the Latin word moschata some animal and plant species that have a strong smell: the musk-ox, musk beetle, musk rat and musk alligator. All of them are smelly, but this has no relation to their natural musk glands.

The musk ox, for example, has no special apocrine glands and smells all by itself. Beaver and muskrat have a smell of castoreum and civetone respectively, and the alligators emit a pheromone-type substance with a sweet odor resembling the smell of roses.

WHAT IS CALLED MUSK IN PERFUMERY?

The best way to get the definition is to ask perfumers.


“The term ‘musk’ is an abstraction from the complex odor impressions of natural musk tinctures, especially from the dry-down, after the more volatile parts are evaporated. It refers to the warm, sensual, sweet-powdery tonality of the dry-down.” (Scent and Chemistry: The Molecular World of Perfumes by Gunther Ohloff, Wilhelm Pickenhagen, Philip Kraft)
 

That's the nice, warm, sensual, sweet, powdery smell that remains after the bestial main part of Tonkin musk disappeared; something like a warm and slightly damp smell of baby head, that delicate and tender half-smell, half-feeling.

Today, not all young perfumers have had the chance to smell real natural musk (nor have perfume users)—now for them and for us the concept of “musk” is based on organic chemistry and perfume benchmarks; “musky” means “soft, warm, neutral, slightly audible bodily smell.”

In terms of benchmarks, 15-pentadecanolide (2, Thibetolide®, Exaltolide®) is probably
the commercial musk with the least side notes; and thus, it will serve as the reference to
what we understand as a musk odorant. (Scent and Chemistry: The Molecular World of Perfumes by Gunther Ohloff, Wilhelm Pickenhagen, Philip Kraft.) Frederic Malle's Musc Ravageur gives an excellent overview of musk, for example.

In a perfume composition musk works as the balancing and harmonizing agent that smoothes some rough edges. Musks make a fragrance formula more clean and fix the perfume's scent; musks give the composition volume, liveliness and warmth—in general, musks make the perfume out of components. Probably we cannot find any modern perfume which would be made without any musks. Marketing tests show that buyers like perfumes with a high content of synthetic musks (usually from 10 to 20%, sometimes even more), so musk accords make a big part of any perfume formula.

NITROMUSKS

Synthetic musks first appeared in the 19th century by accident. The discovery of Albert Baur, who wanted to find a way to get a powerful and safe explosive such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) in 1888, and received instead a strong musk-smelling substance, can be considered a rare success. “Musk Baur” in the form of a 10% solution with a price of USD $500 per kg (half the price of natural Tonkin musk) brought down heavily the musk market. London stockbrokers, however, assured the opposite—they said that synthetic musk is not suitable even for soap and Parisian perfumers again began to buy the Tonkin musk, brought from Shanghai ...

The Nitromusk family was further explored by Albert Baur with Musk Ambrette, Musk Ketone and Musk Xylene in the years 1894-1898, and by Givaudan, who came up with Musk Tibetene, Musk Alpha and Moskene. They were the first generation of synthetic musks, the principal musks in perfumery until the 1950s.

Actually nitromusks were the first benchmark of generic musk, the musk abstraction with a warm, sweet, powdery scent and a soft animal touch. Musk Ketone, which was used for example in Chanel №5, was the reference smell of musk, since it closely resembles Tonkin musk; its low odor preception threshold was the special advantage—just 0.1 nanogram per liter air.

Musk Xylene was a rougher and cheaper smell than Musk Ketone, and was used extensively in soaps and detergent formulas. Musk Ambrette was the musk with a strong floral shade of freesia, and it was strictly banned in 1981.

Nitromusks were banned due to their neuro- and phototoxicity, high reactivity that leads to color changing of perfumes, as well as their poor biodegradability and accumulation in organisms. However, consumers did like the sweet powdery nitromusk smell, and some legendary fragrances were built upon nitromusks, so scientists had to find some replacement for nitromusks.

COPYING MUSKS FROM NATURE

Systematic studies of natural Tonkin musk began in the early twentieth century, as the search for substances responsible for the musky smell, to re-create those substances artificially. Heinrich Walbaum of Schimmel & Co. was the first who found the principal musk odorant of Tonkin musk in 1906 and established the empirical formula of this ketone, giving it the name “Muscone.” He found that the Muscone percentage in Tonkin musk ranged from 0.5 to 2%! The rest of the brown grains were some aromatic or non-smelling organic compounds, like fatty acids, proteins, waxes, steroid compounds, cholesterol esters, etc.

Siberian kabarga

The chemical structure of Muscone was discovered by Professor Leopold Ruzicka in his work (1922-1926) that brought him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1939. He found the structure of Muscone to be a ketone with a large hydrocarbon ring consisting of 15 atoms. This work started a chapter of macrocyclic chemistry and also the hunt for macrocyclic ketones in order to find other synthetic nature-like musks. Eventually scientists learned to make Muscone and other natural macrocyclic musks (Exaltone, Civetone) in the laboratories, so the musks appeared on the market. Around the same time, in 1927, the musk-smelling macrocyclic lactones (macrolides) were found by Max Kerschbaum in the essential oil of Angelica root. One of them, 15-pentadecanolide (also called Thibetolide and Exaltolide), was made by synthesis and brought to the market at a crazy price of USD $30,000 per kg.

Ambretta seeds, photo from essentialoilspedia.com

Other musk-smelling lactones were found in Ambrette seed oil (Ambrettolide) and Galbanum resin (and later, in orchids and other plants also). So, macrocyclic musks have been known to scientists and perfumers since the 1920s, but were too expensive for mass production. After World War II, chemists were able to find cheaper ways to get musks found in nature. For example, perfectly neutral musk 15-pentadecanolide, mentioned earlier, is produced industrially with a price around USD $60 per kg, and it is offered by many under various trade names. Givaudan calls it Thibetolide, at Firmenich it's called Exaltolide, it bears the name Macrolide in Symrise and Pentalide at Soda Aromatics. In addition, chemists were able to find more similar macrocyclic molecules with a musky smell as well as how to manufacture them. Musk T or Ethylene brassylate (musk with a floral and powdery hue, like ambrette oil) is the most common macrocyclic musk, because it's inexpensive, only USD $15 per kg.

Let's list some synthetic macrocyclic musks of the second musk generation: Globanone (the musk with aldehyde-wax shades), Velvione (powdery musk with a warm nitromusk hue), Cosmone, Muscenone (a strong powdery scent resembling Musk Ketone), Nirvanolide (strong and clear powdery sweet musky smell with a subtle animal touch) . The last two, Muscenone and Nirvanolide, are used by perfumers in the 21st century to replace the nitromusks in legendary perfume recreations.

We should also mention Globalide (aka Habanolide) musk, that has a neutral musk background with shades of linen and cotton, hot iron, wood, metal and hot candle wax. It is an important part of the “white musk accord.”

POLYCYCLIC MUSKS (PCM)

Nitromusks were inexpensive and smelled nice. But they lacked stability and were reactive, and that made their use for functional perfumery (soaps, detergents, shampoos, cosmetics) very limited. In 1951 Kurt Fuchs invented some substance with a musky smell and in 1952 it was marketed under the name Phantolide. “Phantom” is in the name because Fuchs did not know the structure of his discovery; the substance smelled good and was stable in an alkaline medium, and hence is great for detergents. Four years later, the structure of the musk was deciphered by others, and the new-found polycyclical structure gave birth to polycyclic musks, the third musk generation. So the race had begun—for better stability, for the most pleasant odor, for the lowest odor preception threshold!

Let's mention some of them: Traseolide, Celestolide/Crysolide, Fixolide/Tonalide, Vulcanolide, Versalide, and Galaxolide/Pearlide. They tend to have a strong musky smell, sweet, with dry powdery and amber shades. They are very persistent (250 to 400 hours on the blotter!) and they were cheap—so it's no wonder that in the late twentieth century polycyclic musks were about three quarters of the total musk odorants used!

Eventually, scientists discovered that polycyclic musks (PCMs) are so stable to any influence that they were found in human fat and in the human milk of nursing mothers! Obviously, the molecules have time to go the way of washing powder into the sewers, and then into the sea, there to climb up the food chain to fish that mothers have used for meals after cooking, and all this way the polycyclic musk molecules were not hurt! Now that's what should be called persistence! Although damage from PCMs' presence has yet to be proven, scientists realized that too good is not good.

These inexpensive functional musks found their way into high-end perfumes. Galaxolide, an odorant with a strong and sweet floral musk smell, became the face of many perfumes of the 1970s through the 1990s. It was brought into fashion by the legendary Sophia Grojsman in White Linen Estee Lauder and Tresor de Lancome; then followed by Dune Christian Dior, Narciso Rodriguez for her, Curious Britney Spears, Clair de Musc Serge Lutens, and many-many others based on Galaxolide .
..

It should be noted that among the polycyclic odorants there are some that have the musk smell just as strong as the other denominators. For example, polycyclic molecule Cashmeran has a complex smell with amber-woody, leathery and powdery-musk aspects. It is called “cashmere” or “Cashmere wood” in perfume descriptions.

LINEAR MUSKS

In 1975, BASF scientists Werner Hoffman and Karl von Fraunberg announced the discovery of aromatic substances having a warm powdery musky smell with hints of fruit and strawberries. It was named Cyclomusk, but it never made it to the market, because it could not compete against Galaxolide.


Development of the group of aliphatic and alicyclic (another name for linear) musks was continued by the invention of Helvetolide (a fruity blackberry musky smell) in 1990, and 10 years later by Romandolide, a delicate fresh berry-like camphoraceous musk. Serenolide, Sylkolide and Appelide constitute other linear musks—the fourth generation of musks, and these can be tuned to be either substantive or very volatile. Thus, Sylkolide is a top-note musk. There are few anosmias towards linear musks, so combining them with macrocyclic musks avoids anosmias. The combination of linear and macrocyclic musks is very common, especially in the so-called "white musk accord."

WHAT IS WHITE MUSK?

White musk accord was first created by Alberto Morillas in Emporio Armani White for Her (2001) to confer the image of “fresh cotton and linen.” The first combo of white musks consisted of linear Helvetolide and macrocyclic Habanolide musk odorants.


When you find a white musk accord in the descriptions of Cologne Thierry Mugler (2002), Glow J. Lo (2002) and many other perfumes, you should get some harmonious combination of several macrocyclic and alicyclic musks, giving you a fresh and pure feeling, some shine, some air and cleanliness. Soaps and detergents and a white shirt pressed with a hot steam iron are optional associations.

THE FUTURE OF MUSKS

Currently the research for new musk odorants continues in every perfume company. There were reports about the discovery of new musks odorants, dienone musks, in 2002. The research is ongoing, and a fifth musk generation has not been launched on the market yet.


As with any new synthetic odorant, new musks should be non-toxic and biodegradable, have a high persistance and chemical stability in different environments, have lower production cost and—to add some new smell!—have new smell profiles. In a good, well-compounded fragrance the musk fond should correspond to the overall perfume theme: floral scents needs musks with floral shades (Galaxolide, for example), oriental fragrances needs musks with powdery or woody shades ...


Regarding profitability, it is a little bit like the situation of natural ingredients vs synthetics. If inexpensive ethylene brassylate is used, the musk feeling might be somewhat diffuse. A very potent molecule makes a clear statement, and that's where Nirvanolide, Muscenone and musk ketone excel. Musk ketone has the additional benefit of being affordable. The intensity of Nirvanolide and Muscenone does not yet make up for their higher prices, but they give a more crisp, more present, more radiant feeling than using a lot of a high-threshold musk, which would act as a filler.


Thus, the ideal synthetic musk does not exist yet. Some musks smell nice but are dangerous and have been banned; others are too stable and non-biodegradable (though are not known to be toxic so far), and some are still very expensive to manufacture. Expensive synthetic musk or amber molecules, not the flowers essential oils and absolutes, are the main reason for modern perfumes' high prices, because the flowers are used in much smaller quantities than musks. [Oh, and it was the same in the natural musk era, when musk was worth twice the price of gold! But at least now we have choices.]



Many thanks to Dr. Philip Kraft, co-author of the book Scent and Chemistry: The Molecular World of Perfumes  with Gunther Ohloff, Wilhelm Pickenhagen, for numerous consultations and permission to use the materials of the encyclopedic book when writing this article. Citations with the permission of VHCA/Wiley-VCH, represented by Thomas Kolitzus.

 

Serguey Borisov

Serguey Borisov has been known in the Internet world of perfume under the nickname moon_fish for more than 10 years. Now he writes about perfumes for GQ.ru and Vogue.ru, and contributes on the subject for glossy magazines.

 

 

 

 



Previous Raw Materials Next


Arlene-Beatrix
Arlene-Beatrix

It's true that musk in perfumes can give very different feelings. Sometimes musk is very warm, sensual, it smells like skin warmed a little by sun, so it is very sexy and inviting. But also musk can be very clean, cool, refreshing. Possibly it all depends on the type of 'musk molecule' and the quantity used. When you read 'musk' in notes, you never know what to expect.

Jan
25
2016
gordbrad
gordbrad

scholarly, smart, interesting--and on a niche topic that is hard to find good, accessible writing about--more of this please! :-) more accessible writing about organic chemistry for perfume in general please...

Jan
25
2016
Zazenh
Zazenh

Thanks for a great article Serguey. I LOVE musk, that "nice" "fresh laundry" and pleasant smell is intoxicating.

The most interesting thing about this is asking what made us humans think we could actually obtain a pleasant scent from this animalic natural scent?

Feb
07
2015
SNOOPY
SNOOPY

That musk deer looks like a prehistoric remnant of the ice age with those long teeth.
Once again,thanks for taking the time to write a good article.
Really informative!

Jan
15
2015
Mojtabaa
Mojtabaa

Musks in general increase the longevity of a perfume.

Low quality musks are very cheap.

Now you can understand why a musky and cheap perfume,lasts and projects ver well.

Synthetic and chemical musks, like many other chemical materials have different grades of quality.

The cheaper musks have a very harsh and synthetic scents and using them in a perfume is the source of most of the headaches in many people.

Jan
15
2015
sophywt
sophywt

it looks like no need to kill the deer, I heard people can get musk from living deer already.

I don't know if this is the same kind of musk deer. But I got the information from Chinese local perfumer's book, so it seems he refers the same musk deer.

Mar
27
2014
Labaloo
Labaloo

Very-insightful- and enjoyable! Thanks so much for sharing!

Mar
13
2014
susana75
susana75

المسك كثبان الجنة , تقرير جميل

Mar
13
2014
HeidiLynn
HeidiLynn

Very interesting, informative and well written.

Mar
12
2014
artsyrn
artsyrn

Fascinating reporting done in a most informative and creative manner. Thank you!

Mar
12
2014
Marli1973
Marli1973

I really enjoyed reading it. Very interesting x

Mar
12
2014
sweetiepea161616
sweetiepea161616

How can I bookmark this article?! I love it!

Mar
11
2014
Houdini4
Houdini4

Very informative and interesting reading.

Mar
11
2014
NoireFox
NoireFox

A wonderfully-written and informative article about one of my most favorite perfume ingredients. Thank you Fragrantica & Serguey.

Mar
10
2014
SILENTMELODIES7
SILENTMELODIES7

An extremely informative article on a note that remains my favorite. Thank you Serguey.

Mar
08
2014
Cybernoir
Cybernoir

This article is why I love Fragrantica. Very thorough, well written, referenced and cited. I read it straight through twice. Perfectly pitched for this audience, with in-depth information presented in an accessible overview. Thanks so much.

Mar
08
2014
physalis
physalis

A very technical and thorough article that enriched my knowledge.

The use of natural musk, nowadays, raises important questions as animal suffering, the medicinal influence of the this substance (well known not only by traditional Chinese medicine), and the high price for the consumer.

It's necessary, however, to be careful with safety and quality standards of the wide variety of synthetic musks that are the basis of countless current fragrances. Ideally we should use molecules that can mimic the original odor without triggering hormonal changes in the body (which is one of the properties of natural musk).

In fact, perfumery is still searching for the perfect musk.

Mar
07
2014
IMsooKool4Real
IMsooKool4Real

An amazing article with a great deal of information condensed into a few easy to follow paragraphs. Thanks for taking the time to write about one of the most interesting of elements in perfumery.

Mar
07
2014
woodlandwalk
woodlandwalk

Excellent and informative, loads to explore and learn about there!

Mar
07
2014
aymansoo7
aymansoo7

تقرير روعة متقن وشامل ... شكراً لك

Mar
07
2014
sweetiepea161616
sweetiepea161616

As a chemist, I am absolutely delighted by this article, and now I feel I must own this book! Thank you for an amazing piece!

Mar
07
2014
AnnabelLee
AnnabelLee

Very interesting! Thank you, Mr Borisov.

Mar
07
2014
my2spritz
my2spritz

p.s. Musk Deer have fangs? Whaaaa!?!

Mar
07
2014
my2spritz
my2spritz

Oh wow, what a sexy article. I'm buying this book! And I've read a few of the FB articles. Thanks for turning me on to this!

Now, on the topic of stable PCMs. I know that most molecules have half lives. And I've learned over the years that the the ones that don't breakdown are dangerous. Even DDT breaks down in the environment, it was banned worldwide, and this is a compound that could save all the children on the African continent (but instead we raise money to buy them mosquito nets).

Anyways, this got me thinking about the recent oakmoss ban. I wonder if it is really a dangerous musk and not just lobbyist pushing the little guys out of the market like everyone speculates.

psst, Serguey Borisov, ask the scent scientists to share their thoughts on the recent oakmoss legislation.

Mar
07
2014
Fiona22
Fiona22

Great article! I truly enjoyed it. Thank you!

Mar
07
2014
craftyminx
craftyminx

Thank you so much for this! I love an indepth conversation on the chemistry of perfumery, and this was very informative.

Mar
07
2014
Xanovia
Xanovia

One of the best reads I have had on here in a long time... Thank you so much for this wonderful information...

Mar
07
2014
migueldematos
migueldematos

Great article, Serguey. What an intensive and useful research. In your honour I shall spray some vintage Jovan Musk Oil today!

Mar
07
2014
emily7
emily7

Great article, thank you!

Mar
07
2014
HUEbris
HUEbris

Very important and useful article. thank you very much.
I just wondering, if nitromusks were banned because of their toxic, then how about other harmful ingredients in cosmetics and perfumes that still using nowadays?
The companies knew, but they still used them, no any restraint.
It's too shame legendary perfumes couldn't keep their original formulas.
I want to smell they were meant to be, even that's toxic.

Mar
07
2014
zohaib248
zohaib248

great work. a very informative article. i love the smell of musk and now that i know about it, thank you, i would enjoy it even more. in the middle east where i live, we have something called "black musk" which smells heavenly. its not light like white musk. its full on animalic. I think musk is the single most sensuous fragrance note out there.

Mar
07
2014
shimmer
shimmer

Great overview - thank you, Serguey Borisov.
As someone who had the opportunity to smell natural musk in my childhood, I have a wish. That someone would make a synthetic that was unafraid of the close animal smell of natural musk and thus be able to recreate its warmth, sweetness and skin-flattering qualities. I'm afraid most of what passes for musk nowadays (though I have only smelled it in compositions not as isolated molecules) doesn't really resemble natural musk, just aspects of it. With 'white musks' one is really on another planet.
Ambrette seed seems to be good on the skin scent side of things but less so in terms of sweetness.

Mar
07
2014
spidola
spidola

Really interesting review,thank you!

Mar
07
2014
Poboijosh
Poboijosh

Wow... extremely informative, and great review Serguey, thank you for taking the time to put that together! Very interesting...

Mar
06
2014
pattnaik
pattnaik

Excellent review. Very much enjoyed reading it. Incredibly informative. Kudos to Serguey Borisov.

Mar
06
2014
chayaruchama
chayaruchama

Thank you , Sergey. This is a great resource.

Mar
06
2014
mikemuscles21
mikemuscles21

Thank you for this article

Mar
06
2014
drugstore classics
drugstore classics

Incredibly informative. Thank you, Serguey!

Mar
06
2014
Sy888
Sy888

Wow this is a great review!! I've been searching for a review on musk as complete as this one but i never found this much explanation on one page. Very interesting thank you! :)

Mar
06
2014

Add Your Review

Become a member of this online perfume community and you will be able to add your own reviews.

New Perfumes

GypsyRadioactive Mushrooms in the Forest
Gypsy

MermaidRadioactive Mushrooms in the Forest
Mermaid

MayaRadioactive Mushrooms in the Forest
Maya

LolitaRadioactive Mushrooms in the Forest
Lolita

ToshiRadioactive Mushrooms in the Forest
Toshi

MorningsRadioactive Mushrooms in the Forest
Mornings

CostaRadioactive Mushrooms in the Forest
Costa

Atkinsons His Majesty The OudAtkinsons
Atkinsons His Majesty The Oud

Atkinsons Her Majesty The OudAtkinsons
Atkinsons Her Majesty The Oud

The Secret NightAntonio Banderas
The Secret Night

Her Secret NightAntonio Banderas
Her Secret Night

Gentlemen Only AbsoluteGivenchy
Gentlemen Only Absolute

Mon ParisYves Saint Laurent
Mon Paris

Agent Provocateur LaceAgent Provocateur
Agent Provocateur Lace

Emporio Armani Diamonds Club for Him Giorgio Armani
Emporio Armani Diamonds Club for Him

Emporio Armani Diamonds ClubGiorgio Armani
Emporio Armani Diamonds Club

Bonbon CoutureViktor&Rolf
Bonbon Couture

Tuberose pour FemmeRoja Dove
Tuberose pour Femme

A Midsummer DreamRoja Dove
A Midsummer Dream

Original BlendOriginal Penguin
Original Blend

Premium BlendOriginal Penguin
Premium Blend

E.d'E. BLACK Perfume oilMCMC Fragrances
E.d'E. BLACK Perfume oil

E.d'E. BLUE Perfume oilMCMC Fragrances
E.d'E. BLUE Perfume oil

Sergey Gubanov for HerSergey Gubanov
Sergey Gubanov for Her

Sergey Gubanov for HimSergey Gubanov
Sergey Gubanov for Him

Lignum VitaeBeauFort London
Lignum Vitae

Hollister Wave For HerHollister
Hollister Wave For Her

Hollister Wave For HimHollister
Hollister Wave For Him

Modern PrincessLanvin
Modern Princess

212 VIP Rose PillsCarolina Herrera
212 VIP Rose Pills

Popular brands and perfumes: