Lotus

lat. Nelumbo nucifera

Group: Flowers

Lotus Nelumbo nucifera
Lotus Nelumbo nucifera
Lotus Nelumbo nucifera
Odor profile: floral note with watery, aqueous qualities, light and ethereal with lightly sweetish tonality



The lotus is a flower of antiquity and has long been associated with the history, culture, religion, ancient literature and arts and crafts of India.  Due to all of these characteristics, the lotus was selected as the national flower of India. It has been described in various mythological legends, epics, scriptures, Sanskrit literature and historical records.
 




Botanical Name - Nelumbo nucifera
Synonyms - Nelumbium nelumbo
                     Nelumbium speciosum
Family - Nympheaceae or Nelumbonaceae

















 


Waterlily (Nymphaea spp.) is another aquatic flower which resembles the lotus and people sometimes confuse the two.

NAMES

The family Nympheaceae has two important genera having aquatic species with beautiful and attractive flowers i.e. water lily and lotus.  The former belongs to the genera Nymphea and the latter is from Nelumbo. Moreover, the genus Nelumbo has only two species, N. nucifera (Indian lotus) and N. lutea (American lotus or yellow lotus).

Nelumbo lutea Nelumbo nucifera

Nelumbo lutea produces yellow flowers and is known as the American Lotus. In Ayurvedic nomenclature, the lotus is known as Kamala, Padma, Nalina, Arvind mahotpala, Rajeeva, Pushklara and in Unani, it is known as Nilofar, while in Siddha it is called Ambel.

DISTRIBUTION


Lotus had been introduced to Egypt by the Romans by about 50 BC. The lotus is a native to India, China and Japan and is widely distributed from tropical East Africa to North East Australia. Lotus is found growing in wetland habitats including floodplains, lagoons, marshes, swamps, rivers, lakes, ponds, pools and the backwaters of reservoirs.

BOTANY

Nelumbo nucifera is a large, perennial, aquatic, herbaceous plant. The rhizome of the plant becomes elongated, about 60 to 120 cm in length, 6 to 9 cm in diameter. It is farinaceous, white to buff-orange in color and edible. Leaves are large with a central stalk, blue-grey in color, peltate and coated with wax. The leaves of the lotus have a water repellent leaf surface and which has led to the termed the “lotus effect.” The leaves have self-cleaning capacity which is a result of dirt particles being picked up by water forms droplets due to the complex nanostructure of the leaf surface, which minimizes adhesion. Flowers are solitary, borne at or above the leaf level, single or double, fragrant, white, rosy or deep pink in color.

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS


Nelumbo nucifera contains a number of alkaloids—roemerine, nuciferine, nornuciferine, liensinine, isoliesinine, neferine, lotusine, armepavin etc. 
 

LOTUS IN INDIAN CULTURE AND RELIGION

In the Hindu religion all the three Brahminical deities, Brahma (the Creator), Vishnu (the Protector) and Shiva (the Destroyer) are associated with the lotus.

Three of the four arms of Lord Vishnu hold a conch, the wheel and the club while the fourth holds a lotus, which is probably the symbol of the created universe.

The Brahmana part of theTaittiriya Upanishada (before 800 BC) describes that the lotus has association with Prajapati (Brahma) in cosmogonic myths. When Brahma was sitting by the side of the waste water, he saw a solitary lotus leaf floating in the moving waters and thought it must rest on something. He then dived into the water in the form of a boar and finding earth below, broke off a fragment, brought it to the surface of the water and spread it out on the leaf, and that was the beginning of the earth.

Lakshmi

The lotus is the symbol of the goddess Lakshmi, being her divine seat. She sits on a fully opened lotus and holds up a lotus in her right hand.

All the gods and goddesses of Hinduism (Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Parvati, Durga, Rama and Surya), Buddhism (Buddha and Bodhisattva) and Jainism (Mahavir and others) are associated with the sacred lotus. They are shown sitting on the divine lotus or holding a lotus in the hand.

The lotus has inspired poets, artists and sculptors of both the ancient and present periods. The lotus shape has also been used in architecture.  A great example of this is the Bahá'í House of Worship in Delhi, India popularly known as the Lotus Temple due to its lotus-like shape. It was made in 1986.

Lotus motifs are also seen in textile designs and pottery, and it is also referred to in the folk songs and dances of India.

The lotus is figured in one of the postage stamps in India. Every year on the Republic Day, the Government of India awards honors like Padamshree, Padmabhushan, Padmavibhushan to the distinguished personality of the country.

The lotus symbolizes divineness, purity, beauty of the eyes and face, kind-heartedness, fragrance, coolness, fertility and prosperity. In the classical literature of many Asian cultures the lotus is represented in figurative form, representing elegance, beauty, perfection, purity and grace, being used often in poems and songs as an allegory for ideal feminine attributes.
 

USES

Nelumbo nucifera has been in cultivation in China, Japan and India from many years, and has been grown not only for its cultural and ornamental value, but also for medicinal uses and for its edible "seeds" and rhizomes. The rhizomes are roasted, pickled, candied or sliced and fried as chips.

Lotus rhizomes

A paste made from the nutlets is used as a filling in mooncakes, a traditional Chinese  pastry. The young leaves, leaf stalks and flowers are eaten as vegetables in India.

Almost all parts of the lotus plant are edible. In India, the fresh rhizomes are consumed as a vegetable, either roasted or in curry form. The dried rhizome slices are used in making curry or fried chips. The rhizomes are also frozen and pickled.

Lotus nuts

The nuts are sweet and delicious and are eaten in different ways, like raw, roasted,    boiled, or candied. The nuts are a rich source of protein and total carbohydrates, mainly starch.

The lotus flowers are used for extraction of perfume. The lotus perfume available in the trade is a blend of patchouli, benzoin and styrax with phenylethyl and cinnamic alcohols.

The distinctive fruiting receptacles are widely sold throughout the world for decorative  purposes and for dried flower arranging.

The Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP), a nationalist political party of India uses the lotus as its election symbol.

In Buddhist temples, lotus is burned in powder form as ceremonial incense.
 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Lotus

1.5062311989686
Surreal Garden Avon
1.5038676407391
KenzoKi White Lotus (Relaxing) Kenzo
1.5037243947858
Fior di Loto Tesori d`Oriente
1.501647328463
Lotus Petal The Body Shop
1.5009310986965
Love to Kiss Victoria`s Secret
1.5007878527432
Mila Schön Lei Mila Schön
1.5007878527432
Fleurs de Jontue Lotus de Nuit Revlon
1.50021486893
Savann MCMC Fragrances
1.50021486893
Willow and Water Library of Flowers
1.4891513478012
Ralph Lauren Big Pony 1 for Women Ralph Lauren
1.4641880501361
Nautica Sunset Voyage Nautica
1.4586275096691
Summer White Sunset Avon
1.4298602135797
Oscar Sheer Freesia Oscar de la Renta
1.4286426229767
Notes from Michael Glenplaid Michael Kors
1.4175264757198
L`Eau par Kenzo Love L`Eau pour Homme Kenzo
1.4142054645466
Omnia Crystalline Bvlgari
1.413174166595
Alabaster Banana Republic
1.4091533333333
Euphoria Calvin Klein
1.40021486893
Aubusson Flore Aubusson
1.3906737378599
Hamsa Celine Leora
1.3853979530153
Dunhill Pure Alfred Dunhill
1.3810163300387
Eternity Summer Calvin Klein
1.3641373608366
Lotus Blossom Susanne Lang
1.3640657378599
L`Eau Par Kenzo Pour Homme Limited Edition Kenzo
1.359246954018
Bright Crystal Versace
1.3473888203696
In The Mood For Love Tender Gianfranco Ferre
1.3424808663515
L'Eau d'Issey Pour Homme Issey Miyake
1.3343357216731
Exotics Tempting Berry Victoria`s Secret
1.3338343608366
Siren Impulse
1.3261790501361
Rose Aurore Eau Fraiche L`Occitane en Provence
1.3184921827818
U by Ungaro for Her Avon
1.3183252459533
White Lotus Illuminum
1.3159322459533
Vida Wild Lotus Romane
1.311370611517
Green Tea Lotus Elizabeth Arden
1.3094737408681
Un Jardin Sur Le Nil Hermes
1.301647328463
Lotus Matthew Williamson
1.2987124924796
Black Orchid Tom Ford
1.2952639676264
L`Eau Par Kenzo Pour Femme Limited Edition Kenzo
1.2931162960894
Dream Angels Blush Eau de Parfum Victoria`s Secret
1.2920431488325
L`Eau d`Issey Reflection In A Drop Issey Miyake
1.2875761973929
U by Ungaro for Her Emanuel Ungaro
1.2862869838132
Et Plus Si Affinites Chantal Thomass
1.28592886893
Moon Shadow Library of Flowers
1.2831396987538
L'eau d'Issey Eau de Parfum Issey Miyake
1.2826420177625
L'Eau d’Issey Lotus Issey Miyake
1.2820378527432
L`Eau par Kenzo Love L`Eau Kenzo
1.2768095096691
Lotus Garden Pacifica
1.2755393390632
Nautica Voyage Nautica
1.2755202960894
Dalistyle Salvador Dali
1.272727
Collection Privee Rubis Faberlic
1.2693886731127
Dynastie Mademoiselle Princesse Marina De Bourbon
1.2669204642601
5:40 pm in Madagascar Kenzo
1.2661326908752
Belara Mary Kay
1.2634001973929
Lotus Rose Les Parfums de Rosine
1.2612892135797
Lotus Sake Tokyo Milk Parfumarie Curiosite
1.2611731843575
Eclat Weekend Oriflame
1.2603982237502
L'eau d'Issey Issey Miyake
1.2581046407391
Lismore Waterford
1.2566508203696
Ungaro Party Emanuel Ungaro
1.2528205128205
Dream Angels Divine Victoria`s Secret
1.2526887264002
Incanto Bliss Salvatore Ferragamo
1.2506446067899
Agua de Bambu Adolfo Dominguez
1.2505013608366
Hinlay pour Femme Lorelyane
1.2504928909898
Pure DKNY Donna Karan
1.2504297378599
Lotus Lavender Aromatic Durance en Provence
1.2501432459533
Humanity MCMC Fragrances
1.25
Blue Lotus Tabac Artemisia Natural Perfume
1.25
Black Ink Giorgio Monti
1.240453328463
Blue Escape for Her Avon
1.2399340101705
Curious Britney Spears Britney Spears
1.2359386067899
Intimate Vanilla Neil Morris
1.2358669838132
Magnetic for Her Mexx
1.2343908041828
Mexx Pure for Her Mexx
1.232587787996
Trouble eau Legere Boucheron
1.2314852297665
Cool Tropic Palm Comptoir Sud Pacifique
1.2311987378599
Empress Lilly Stacked Style
1.228670919066
Nenufar Scents of Time
1.2280876324309
Treselle Avon
1.2274886632288
Into the Blue Escada
1.2274621488325
Blue Charm Azzaro
1.223335707062
L`Eau d`Issey Une Goutte de Nuage Issey Miyake
1.2223652459533
Sula Lily Lotus Susanne Lang
1.2223652459533
Moulinette Soeurs Adelie Anthropologie
1.2220430982667
Lovestruck Vera Wang
1.2220358435754
Cool Water Davidoff
1.2215907216731
Snowing Rose Masaki Matsushima
1.2201108365564
Sogni del Mare Antonia`s Flowers
1.2199365613809
Attimo Salvatore Ferragamo
1.2197545582295
Lily Prune Love Ulric de Varens
1.2188660501361
Dream Angels Heavenly Shine Victoria`s Secret
1.2181788527432
Mei Alfred Sung
1.2180442410829
Allure eau de parfum Chanel
1.2180356067899
Set Sail South Seas Tommy Bahama
1.2158617054863
Cabotine Aquarelle Gres
1.2155610888125
Omnia Crystalline Eau de Parfum Bvlgari
1.2155035906031
Simply Cotton Mary Kay
1.2147492151554
Imagine Lollia
1.2147157378599
Gold Diva Roberto Verino
1.2129611812061
Cabotine Bleu Gres
1.2122642459533
Muschio Marino Torre of Tuscany
1.21074086893
Jasmine, Lotus and Green Tea Nicolai Bergmann
1.2090079719238
L'Eau par Kenzo pour Homme Kenzo
1.2083544433462
Davidoff Cool Water Summer Dive Woman Davidoff
1.2075784303108
L'Eau D'Issey Absolue Issey Miyake
1.2075234449219
Natural Vitality Adidas
1.2057247895717
Dream of Pink Lacoste
1.2057034271594
Aura by Swarovski Collection Mariage Swarovski
1.205128
Pink Lotus Aftelier
1.2041430063028
Cheap & Chic Light Clouds Moschino
1.2011459676264
Calypso Marine Calypso Christiane Celle
1.2010027216731
Eau Egyptienne Cinq Mondes
1.2009999723535
Turquatic M∙A∙C
1.2006446067899
Love for Her Annayake
1.2005013608366
Les Contes Bucoliques Fleur de Cerisier Parfums Berdoues
1.2005013608366
Cool Water Ocean Radiance Davidoff
1.2003581148833
Hinlay pour Homme Lorelyane
1.2001432459533
Blue-Green : Arnica (Natural) DSH Perfumes
1.2
Asdaf Arabian Oud
1.1995292313422
Bianco Trussardi
1.198352671537
Clean Simply Soap Clean
1.1975163655637
Fleur d`Eau Rochas
1.1951086841427
Arden Beauty Elizabeth Arden
1.1943134433462
Romance eau Fraiche Ralph Lauren
1.1918982313422
Charme La Perla
1.1894754919066
Silent Grove D.S. & Durga
1.18843383054
Romance Ralph Lauren
1.1883594757198
Potion Prescriptives
1.1883594757198
Lovely Girl Bourjois
1.1882208041828
Trish Trish McEvoy
1.18771486893
Flowering Herbs Great American Scents
1.1866613300387
C-Thru Pearl Garden Sarantis
1.1849436600774
Passport South Beach Paris Hilton
1.1827100339493
Stay Gap
1.1824626067899
Lumiere D'Ambre Laura Mercier
1.1824003122762
VV Platinum Roberto Verino
1.1823193608366
Lumiere Aftelier
1.1821044919066
Itoh MIKMOI
1.1818896229767
Loverly Coeur d’Esprit Natural Perfumes
1.181818
Seoul ICN The Scent of Departure
1.1808594757198
Happy Hour Women Gin Tonic
1.1801237718092
Turquatic M∙A∙C
1.1792887441627
Euphoria Eau de Toilette Calvin Klein
1.1788633316144
Lucky Number 6 Liz Claiborne
1.1778649352528
Sphinx Hommage a Greta Garbo Gres
1.1776169676264
mat; yellow Masaki Matsushima
1.1771052491047
L’Eau 2 Kenzo pour Femme Kenzo
1.1767574919066
Alisez Faberlic
1.1762734141241
Indian Summer Priscilla Presley
1.1753189530153
Miss Sixty Elixir Miss Sixty
1.1752139107578
Forbidden Rose Avril Lavigne

Popular brands and perfumes: