Lotus

lat. Nelumbo nucifera

Group: FLOWERS

Lotus Nelumbo nucifera
Lotus Nelumbo nucifera
Lotus Nelumbo nucifera
Odor profile: floral note with watery, aqueous qualities, light and ethereal with lightly sweetish tonality



The lotus is a flower of antiquity and has long been associated with the history, culture, religion, ancient literature and arts and crafts of India.  Due to all of these characteristics, the lotus was selected as the national flower of India. It has been described in various mythological legends, epics, scriptures, Sanskrit literature and historical records.
 




Botanical Name - Nelumbo nucifera
Synonyms - Nelumbium nelumbo
                     Nelumbium speciosum
Family - Nympheaceae or Nelumbonaceae

















 


Waterlily (Nymphaea spp.) is another aquatic flower which resembles the lotus and people sometimes confuse the two.

NAMES

The family Nympheaceae has two important genera having aquatic species with beautiful and attractive flowers i.e. water lily and lotus.  The former belongs to the genera Nymphea and the latter is from Nelumbo. Moreover, the genus Nelumbo has only two species, N. nucifera (Indian lotus) and N. lutea (American lotus or yellow lotus).

Nelumbo lutea Nelumbo nucifera

Nelumbo lutea produces yellow flowers and is known as the American Lotus. In Ayurvedic nomenclature, the lotus is known as Kamala, Padma, Nalina, Arvind mahotpala, Rajeeva, Pushklara and in Unani, it is known as Nilofar, while in Siddha it is called Ambel.

DISTRIBUTION


Lotus had been introduced to Egypt by the Romans by about 50 BC. The lotus is a native to India, China and Japan and is widely distributed from tropical East Africa to North East Australia. Lotus is found growing in wetland habitats including floodplains, lagoons, marshes, swamps, rivers, lakes, ponds, pools and the backwaters of reservoirs.

BOTANY

Nelumbo nucifera is a large, perennial, aquatic, herbaceous plant. The rhizome of the plant becomes elongated, about 60 to 120 cm in length, 6 to 9 cm in diameter. It is farinaceous, white to buff-orange in color and edible. Leaves are large with a central stalk, blue-grey in color, peltate and coated with wax. The leaves of the lotus have a water repellent leaf surface and which has led to the termed the “lotus effect.” The leaves have self-cleaning capacity which is a result of dirt particles being picked up by water forms droplets due to the complex nanostructure of the leaf surface, which minimizes adhesion. Flowers are solitary, borne at or above the leaf level, single or double, fragrant, white, rosy or deep pink in color.

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS


Nelumbo nucifera contains a number of alkaloids—roemerine, nuciferine, nornuciferine, liensinine, isoliesinine, neferine, lotusine, armepavin etc. 
 

LOTUS IN INDIAN CULTURE AND RELIGION

In the Hindu religion all the three Brahminical deities, Brahma (the Creator), Vishnu (the Protector) and Shiva (the Destroyer) are associated with the lotus.

Three of the four arms of Lord Vishnu hold a conch, the wheel and the club while the fourth holds a lotus, which is probably the symbol of the created universe.

The Brahmana part of theTaittiriya Upanishada (before 800 BC) describes that the lotus has association with Prajapati (Brahma) in cosmogonic myths. When Brahma was sitting by the side of the waste water, he saw a solitary lotus leaf floating in the moving waters and thought it must rest on something. He then dived into the water in the form of a boar and finding earth below, broke off a fragment, brought it to the surface of the water and spread it out on the leaf, and that was the beginning of the earth.

Lakshmi

The lotus is the symbol of the goddess Lakshmi, being her divine seat. She sits on a fully opened lotus and holds up a lotus in her right hand.

All the gods and goddesses of Hinduism (Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Parvati, Durga, Rama and Surya), Buddhism (Buddha and Bodhisattva) and Jainism (Mahavir and others) are associated with the sacred lotus. They are shown sitting on the divine lotus or holding a lotus in the hand.

The lotus has inspired poets, artists and sculptors of both the ancient and present periods. The lotus shape has also been used in architecture.  A great example of this is the Bahá'í House of Worship in Delhi, India popularly known as the Lotus Temple due to its lotus-like shape. It was made in 1986.

Lotus motifs are also seen in textile designs and pottery, and it is also referred to in the folk songs and dances of India.

The lotus is figured in one of the postage stamps in India. Every year on the Republic Day, the Government of India awards honors like Padamshree, Padmabhushan, Padmavibhushan to the distinguished personality of the country.

The lotus symbolizes divineness, purity, beauty of the eyes and face, kind-heartedness, fragrance, coolness, fertility and prosperity. In the classical literature of many Asian cultures the lotus is represented in figurative form, representing elegance, beauty, perfection, purity and grace, being used often in poems and songs as an allegory for ideal feminine attributes.
 

USES

Nelumbo nucifera has been in cultivation in China, Japan and India from many years, and has been grown not only for its cultural and ornamental value, but also for medicinal uses and for its edible "seeds" and rhizomes. The rhizomes are roasted, pickled, candied or sliced and fried as chips.

Lotus rhizomes

A paste made from the nutlets is used as a filling in mooncakes, a traditional Chinese  pastry. The young leaves, leaf stalks and flowers are eaten as vegetables in India.

Almost all parts of the lotus plant are edible. In India, the fresh rhizomes are consumed as a vegetable, either roasted or in curry form. The dried rhizome slices are used in making curry or fried chips. The rhizomes are also frozen and pickled.

Lotus nuts

The nuts are sweet and delicious and are eaten in different ways, like raw, roasted,    boiled, or candied. The nuts are a rich source of protein and total carbohydrates, mainly starch.

The lotus flowers are used for extraction of perfume. The lotus perfume available in the trade is a blend of patchouli, benzoin and styrax with phenylethyl and cinnamic alcohols.

The distinctive fruiting receptacles are widely sold throughout the world for decorative  purposes and for dried flower arranging.

The Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP), a nationalist political party of India uses the lotus as its election symbol.

In Buddhist temples, lotus is burned in powder form as ceremonial incense.
 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Lotus Perfumes

1.5042751163083
Fior di Loto Tesori d`Oriente
1.5035835533761
KenzoKi White Lotus (Relaxing) Kenzo
1.5014459952219
Lotus Petal The Body Shop
1.5011316484346
Fleur de Lotus Guerlain
1.5008173016472
Love to Kiss Victoria`s Secret
1.5007544322897
Fleurs de Jontue Lotus de Nuit Revlon
1.5005658242173
Scent Essence - Blooming Lotus Avon
1.5005029548598
Tian Tan King`s Palace Perfumery
1.5003772161449
Willow and Water Library of Flowers
1.5
Super Cambodian Malaysian Agarwood Oil Majid Muzaffar Iterji
1.5
Bely Lotos Dilis Parfum
1.4839338693575
Lotus Flower Demeter Fragrance
1.4768655390419
Alabaster Banana Republic
1.4760650069156
Ralph Lauren Big Pony 1 for Women Ralph Lauren
1.4508536436565
Nautica Sunset Voyage Nautica
1.4446954774299
Fleur de Sephora Lotus Sephora
1.4286338693575
Notes from Michael Glenplaid Michael Kors
1.4214183333333
Euphoria Calvin Klein
1.4201978906073
Surreal Garden Avon
1.4198579548598
Cool Water Ocean Radiance Davidoff
1.4014459952219
Lotus Matthew Williamson
1.3950171228467
Omnia Crystalline Bvlgari
1.3919326935748
Lotus Blossom Susanne Lang
1.3886074585691
Bright Crystal Versace
1.3879143016472
L'Eau par Kenzo Love L'Eau pour Homme Kenzo
1.3875391115302
Summer White Sunset Avon
1.3824750061612
L'Eau d'Issey Pour Homme Issey Miyake
1.3713405438199
Dunhill Pure Alfred Dunhill
1.368546738715
Lotus da Tailandia Mahogany
1.3640760855023
L'Eau par Kenzo pour Homme Limited Edition Kenzo
1.3640132161449
Hinlay Sexy & Zen Lorelyane
1.3638246080724
Savann MCMC Fragrances
1.3611316484346
Oscar Sheer Freesia Oscar de la Renta
1.3591548194392
Rain Commodity
1.3440524678738
Dream Angels Blush Eau de Parfum Victoria`s Secret
1.3431109097196
L'Eau par Kenzo pour Femme Limited Edition Kenzo
1.3387173550861
Black Orchid Tom Ford
1.3347161258645
Lotus Sake Tokyo Milk Parfumarie Curiosite
1.3337730855023
Siren Impulse
1.3335216080724
Black Lotus Aziza World Fragrances
1.3333958693575
Shumoa Majid Muzaffar Iterji
1.3276556887967
Rose Aurore Eau Fraiche L`Occitane en Provence
1.3258324774299
I Love Delight Dzintars
1.3255870458946
Un Jardin Sur Le Nil Hermes
1.3236476696844
Fijian Water Lotus The Body Shop
1.3230684322897
Agua de Bambu Adolfo Dominguez
1.3222463016472
L'Eau par Kenzo Love L'Eau Kenzo
1.32
Love Love City
1.318182
Les Jardins de Bouddha Parfums et Senteurs du Pays Basque
1.3111738693575
I Love Mystic Dzintars
1.308762513014
Mexx Pure for Her Mexx
1.3086350403621
Exotics Tempting Berry Victoria`s Secret
1.3027295110021
Nautica Voyage Nautica
1.3018232113668
Capteur de Reves Lise Watier
1.3
Lotus Flower and Ginger Lily Marks and Spencer
1.2974500759462
Turquatic M∙A∙C
1.294118
Napoli Mod.1 Parfum Bar
1.290323
Vida Wild Lotus Romane
1.2877765273482
Clean Simply Soap Clean
1.2859026080724
Moon Shadow Library of Flowers
1.281375738715
Maliqá Lamis Atef
1.2809968550233
Lotus Garden Pacifica
1.278296128002
Green Tea Lotus Elizabeth Arden
1.2763901710047
Hinlay pour Femme Lorelyane
1.2758075985163
Rock N Rebel Flirt!
1.2751886080724
White Lotus Illuminum
1.2731893420093
U by Ungaro for Her Emanuel Ungaro
1.2730413467874
Hinlay pour Homme Lorelyane
1.2729156080724
Water Wood Regime des Fleurs
1.2722463016472
Hamsa Celine Leora
1.2711501710047
Clin d'Oeil Lovely Girl Bourjois
1.2697968242173
Itoh MIKMOI
1.266792738715
Blue Lotus Tabac Artemisia Natural Perfume
1.266667
Pina Colada Apple Parfums
1.2659580759462
L`Eau d`Issey Reflection In A Drop Issey Miyake
1.2652530070414
L'eau d'Issey Issey Miyake
1.2638495629322
Mila Schön Lei Mila Schön
1.2615211163083
L'Eau d’Issey Lotus Issey Miyake
1.2611934578147
L'eau d'Issey Eau de Parfum Issey Miyake
1.2573839548598
Aqua for Her Avon
1.2567570403621
Calypso Marine Calypso Christiane Celle
1.2559725889601
L`Eau d`Issey Une Goutte de Nuage Issey Miyake
1.255051256507
Sogni del Mare Antonia`s Flowers
1.255029548598
Eternity Summer Calvin Klein
1.2513577599648
U by Ungaro for Her Avon
1.2512573871495
360° Pink Perry Ellis
1.2509758550233
Lismore Waterford
1.2503772161449
Lotus Lavender Aromatic Durance en Provence
1.2503143467874
Aubusson Flore Aubusson
1.250125738715
Humanity MCMC Fragrances
1.25
Synthesized Lotus Root Malin+Goetz
1.25
Misetu Soivohle
1.25
Black Ink Giorgio Monti
1.2490659569974
5:40 PM in Madagascar Kenzo
1.2471113489249
Dream Angels Divine Victoria`s Secret
1.2464401912486
Pure DKNY Donna Karan
1.2463079002892
Curious Britney Spears Britney Spears
1.2408087196027
Imagine Lollia
1.24
Lou Lou Arabian Oud
1.2399675958758
Turquatic M∙A∙C
1.2388760472778
Eclat Weekend Oriflame
1.235419738715
Blue-Green : Arnica (Natural) DSH Perfumes
1.2346923420093
Simply Cotton Mary Kay
1.2336881731422
Incanto Bliss Salvatore Ferragamo
1.2332209049415
Dream Angels Heavenly Shine Victoria`s Secret
1.232670061612
Dream of Pink Lacoste
1.2324168598013
Dalistyle Salvador Dali
1.2314605629322
Cool Tropic Palm Comptoir Sud Pacifique
1.2308318693575
Nothing is Sacred (Ничё Святова) Denis Simachev
1.2297340807243
Davidoff Cool Water Summer Dive Woman Davidoff
1.2279435581542
Esencia Femme Loewe
1.2277662517289
Blue Escape for Her Avon
1.2274616080724
Flowering Herbs Great American Scents
1.2273358693575
Sensual Obsession Johan B
1.2269945226958
Cool Water Davidoff
1.222347738715
Moulinette Soeurs Adelie Anthropologie
1.222222
Bolzano Mod.1 Parfum Bar
1.2217221258645
Love Olympic Orchids Artisan Perfumes
1.2209676080724
Alisez Faberlic
1.2203716080724
Wistful Aroma Body Mist Amway
1.2201886080724
Potion Joya
1.2192047833522
Omnia Crystalline Eau de Parfum Bvlgari
1.2190643467874
Rosa romántica Bottega Verde
1.2182711710047
Mei Alfred Sung
1.2179568242173
Set Sail South Seas Tommy Bahama
1.2177053467874
Boum Mango Jeanne Arthes
1.2175692793914
Lovestruck Vera Wang
1.217391
Collection Privee Alizes Faberlic
1.215728481705
Treselle Avon
1.214776322897
Belara Mary Kay
1.2145374774299
Necco Sweethearts Call Me Demeter Fragrance
1.214411738715
Provence Purple Novae Plus
1.2143488693575
Lotus Garden Judith Williams
1.2141095533761
Trouble eau Legere Boucheron
1.2137436935748
Intimate Vanilla Neil Morris
1.2133554314095
Allure eau de parfum Chanel
1.2132983420093
Lotus Rose Les Parfums de Rosine
1.2130912113668
Ungaro Party Emanuel Ungaro
1.2127768645794
Cabotine Aquarelle Gres
1.2124749500817
Incanto Amity Salvatore Ferragamo
1.2119152161449
First Love Demeter Fragrance
1.2110289548598
Nymphaea Caerulea Regime des Fleurs
1.2109660855023
Yellow Morgane le Fay
1.2107774774299
Jasmine, Lotus and Green Tea Nicolai Bergmann
1.2103799548598
Wistful No1 Amway
1.2099676032944
Tommy Girl 10 Tommy Hilfiger
1.2084900403621
Eau Egyptienne Cinq Mondes
1.2071559406513
Romance Ralph Lauren
1.2059909952219
Puma Limited Edition Woman Puma
1.205128
Pink Lotus Aftelier

Popular brands and perfumes: