Lotus

lat. Nelumbo nucifera

Group: Flowers

Lotus Nelumbo nucifera
Lotus Nelumbo nucifera
Lotus Nelumbo nucifera
Odor profile: floral note with watery, aqueous qualities, light and ethereal with lightly sweetish tonality



The lotus is a flower of antiquity and has long been associated with the history, culture, religion, ancient literature and arts and crafts of India.  Due to all of these characteristics, the lotus was selected as the national flower of India. It has been described in various mythological legends, epics, scriptures, Sanskrit literature and historical records.
 




Botanical Name - Nelumbo nucifera
Synonyms - Nelumbium nelumbo
                     Nelumbium speciosum
Family - Nympheaceae or Nelumbonaceae

















 


Waterlily (Nymphaea spp.) is another aquatic flower which resembles the lotus and people sometimes confuse the two.

NAMES

The family Nympheaceae has two important genera having aquatic species with beautiful and attractive flowers i.e. water lily and lotus.  The former belongs to the genera Nymphea and the latter is from Nelumbo. Moreover, the genus Nelumbo has only two species, N. nucifera (Indian lotus) and N. lutea (American lotus or yellow lotus).

Nelumbo lutea Nelumbo nucifera

Nelumbo lutea produces yellow flowers and is known as the American Lotus. In Ayurvedic nomenclature, the lotus is known as Kamala, Padma, Nalina, Arvind mahotpala, Rajeeva, Pushklara and in Unani, it is known as Nilofar, while in Siddha it is called Ambel.

DISTRIBUTION


Lotus had been introduced to Egypt by the Romans by about 50 BC. The lotus is a native to India, China and Japan and is widely distributed from tropical East Africa to North East Australia. Lotus is found growing in wetland habitats including floodplains, lagoons, marshes, swamps, rivers, lakes, ponds, pools and the backwaters of reservoirs.

BOTANY

Nelumbo nucifera is a large, perennial, aquatic, herbaceous plant. The rhizome of the plant becomes elongated, about 60 to 120 cm in length, 6 to 9 cm in diameter. It is farinaceous, white to buff-orange in color and edible. Leaves are large with a central stalk, blue-grey in color, peltate and coated with wax. The leaves of the lotus have a water repellent leaf surface and which has led to the termed the “lotus effect.” The leaves have self-cleaning capacity which is a result of dirt particles being picked up by water forms droplets due to the complex nanostructure of the leaf surface, which minimizes adhesion. Flowers are solitary, borne at or above the leaf level, single or double, fragrant, white, rosy or deep pink in color.

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS


Nelumbo nucifera contains a number of alkaloids—roemerine, nuciferine, nornuciferine, liensinine, isoliesinine, neferine, lotusine, armepavin etc. 
 

LOTUS IN INDIAN CULTURE AND RELIGION

In the Hindu religion all the three Brahminical deities, Brahma (the Creator), Vishnu (the Protector) and Shiva (the Destroyer) are associated with the lotus.

Three of the four arms of Lord Vishnu hold a conch, the wheel and the club while the fourth holds a lotus, which is probably the symbol of the created universe.

The Brahmana part of theTaittiriya Upanishada (before 800 BC) describes that the lotus has association with Prajapati (Brahma) in cosmogonic myths. When Brahma was sitting by the side of the waste water, he saw a solitary lotus leaf floating in the moving waters and thought it must rest on something. He then dived into the water in the form of a boar and finding earth below, broke off a fragment, brought it to the surface of the water and spread it out on the leaf, and that was the beginning of the earth.

Lakshmi

The lotus is the symbol of the goddess Lakshmi, being her divine seat. She sits on a fully opened lotus and holds up a lotus in her right hand.

All the gods and goddesses of Hinduism (Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Parvati, Durga, Rama and Surya), Buddhism (Buddha and Bodhisattva) and Jainism (Mahavir and others) are associated with the sacred lotus. They are shown sitting on the divine lotus or holding a lotus in the hand.

The lotus has inspired poets, artists and sculptors of both the ancient and present periods. The lotus shape has also been used in architecture.  A great example of this is the Bahá'í House of Worship in Delhi, India popularly known as the Lotus Temple due to its lotus-like shape. It was made in 1986.

Lotus motifs are also seen in textile designs and pottery, and it is also referred to in the folk songs and dances of India.

The lotus is figured in one of the postage stamps in India. Every year on the Republic Day, the Government of India awards honors like Padamshree, Padmabhushan, Padmavibhushan to the distinguished personality of the country.

The lotus symbolizes divineness, purity, beauty of the eyes and face, kind-heartedness, fragrance, coolness, fertility and prosperity. In the classical literature of many Asian cultures the lotus is represented in figurative form, representing elegance, beauty, perfection, purity and grace, being used often in poems and songs as an allegory for ideal feminine attributes.
 

USES

Nelumbo nucifera has been in cultivation in China, Japan and India from many years, and has been grown not only for its cultural and ornamental value, but also for medicinal uses and for its edible "seeds" and rhizomes. The rhizomes are roasted, pickled, candied or sliced and fried as chips.

Lotus rhizomes

A paste made from the nutlets is used as a filling in mooncakes, a traditional Chinese  pastry. The young leaves, leaf stalks and flowers are eaten as vegetables in India.

Almost all parts of the lotus plant are edible. In India, the fresh rhizomes are consumed as a vegetable, either roasted or in curry form. The dried rhizome slices are used in making curry or fried chips. The rhizomes are also frozen and pickled.

Lotus nuts

The nuts are sweet and delicious and are eaten in different ways, like raw, roasted,    boiled, or candied. The nuts are a rich source of protein and total carbohydrates, mainly starch.

The lotus flowers are used for extraction of perfume. The lotus perfume available in the trade is a blend of patchouli, benzoin and styrax with phenylethyl and cinnamic alcohols.

The distinctive fruiting receptacles are widely sold throughout the world for decorative  purposes and for dried flower arranging.

The Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP), a nationalist political party of India uses the lotus as its election symbol.

In Buddhist temples, lotus is burned in powder form as ceremonial incense.
 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Lotus

1.5037367497903
KenzoKi White Lotus (Relaxing) Kenzo
1.5035842293907
Fior di Loto Tesori d`Oriente
1.5016777243956
Lotus Petal The Body Shop
1.501143902997
Oscar Sheer Freesia Oscar de la Renta
1.5009913825974
Love to Kiss Victoria`s Secret
1.500762601998
Fleurs de Jontue Lotus de Nuit Revlon
1.5001525203996
Savann MCMC Fragrances
1.5001525203996
Willow and Water Library of Flowers
1.4998922239762
Ralph Lauren Big Pony 1 for Women Ralph Lauren
1.4478757089911
Summer White Sunset Avon
1.4286472601998
Notes from Michael Glenplaid Michael Kors
1.4212530324106
Omnia Crystalline Bvlgari
1.4175821223976
L`Eau par Kenzo Love L`Eau pour Homme Kenzo
1.4134230199802
Alabaster Banana Republic
1.4113993333333
Euphoria Calvin Klein
1.4067871577824
Surreal Garden Avon
1.4002287805994
Aubusson Flore Aubusson
1.3846912601998
White Lotus Illuminum
1.3812533363837
Eternity Summer Calvin Klein
1.3710901069931
Nautica Sunset Voyage Nautica
1.3704037651948
Dream Angels Blush Eau de Parfum Victoria`s Secret
1.3641698213986
Lotus Blossom Susanne Lang
1.3640935611988
L`Eau Par Kenzo Pour Homme Limited Edition Kenzo
1.3589913029818
Bright Crystal Versace
1.3472089845954
In The Mood For Love Tender Gianfranco Ferre
1.3349884179822
U by Ungaro for Her Avon
1.3337905611988
Siren Impulse
1.3334855203996
Hamsa Celine Leora
1.3258168059941
Rose Aurore Eau Fraiche L`Occitane en Provence
1.3250101951499
L'Eau d'Issey Pour Homme Issey Miyake
1.3186598359643
Green Tea Lotus Elizabeth Arden
1.3159415203996
Vida Wild Lotus Romane
1.3099798059941
Mexx Pure for Her Mexx
1.3016014641958
Lotus Matthew Williamson
1.3008015103333
Un Jardin Sur Le Nil Hermes
1.2953381631968
L`Eau Par Kenzo Pour Femme Limited Edition Kenzo
1.2920462293907
L`Eau d`Issey Reflection In A Drop Issey Miyake
1.2920435965835
Dunhill Pure Alfred Dunhill
1.287620504995
U by Ungaro for Her Emanuel Ungaro
1.2863240815984
Et Plus Si Affinites Chantal Thomass
1.2857902601998
Moon Shadow Library of Flowers
1.2820888621978
L`Eau par Kenzo Love L`Eau Kenzo
1.2796590953252
L'eau d'Issey Eau de Parfum Issey Miyake
1.272727
Collection Privee Rubis Faberlic
1.2716355965835
Belara Mary Kay
1.271161429955
Black Orchid Tom Ford
1.2691073263937
Dynastie Mademoiselle Princesse Marina De Bourbon
1.2688766273927
Dalistyle Salvador Dali
1.2668468313887
Lotus Garden Pacifica
1.2662792593609
5:40 pm in Madagascar Kenzo
1.2625964320903
L'eau d'Issey Issey Miyake
1.2613892747655
Dream Angels Divine Victoria`s Secret
1.2613726835964
Lotus Sake Tokyo Milk Parfumarie Curiosite
1.2607677310303
Nautica Voyage Nautica
1.2602495095707
Eclat Weekend Oriflame
1.2570048059941
Ungaro Party Emanuel Ungaro
1.2535079691909
Lismore Waterford
1.251143902997
Exotics Tempting Berry Victoria`s Secret
1.2506100815984
Agua de Bambu Adolfo Dominguez
1.2505338213986
Hinlay pour Femme Lorelyane
1.2503050407992
Lotus Lavender Aromatic Durance de Provence
1.2502287805994
Rosa romántica Bottega Verde
1.2501525203996
Humanity MCMC Fragrances
1.25
Black Ink Giorgio Monti
1.2494050961641
Incanto Bliss Salvatore Ferragamo
1.2493966273927
Nenufar Scents of Time
1.2455266265538
Cheap & Chic Light Clouds Moschino
1.2447481598414
Pure DKNY Donna Karan
1.2442531564859
Curious Britney Spears Britney Spears
1.2399252447952
Lotus Rose Les Parfums de Rosine
1.2359040815984
Magnetic for Her Mexx
1.2358278213986
Intimate Vanilla Neil Morris
1.2324821477923
Trouble eau Legere Boucheron
1.231531601998
Cool Tropic Palm Comptoir Sud Pacifique
1.2310740407992
Empress Lilly Stacked Style
1.2274652293907
Blue Charm Azzaro
1.2258750345459
Into the Blue Escada
1.2253152893312
Treselle Avon
1.2243903305117
Cool Water Davidoff
1.2236443363837
L`Eau d`Issey Une Goutte de Nuage Issey Miyake
1.2223745203996
Sula Lily Lotus Susanne Lang
1.2223745203996
Moulinette Soeurs Adelie Anthropologie
1.2222460353847
Natural Vitality Adidas
1.22129428018
Dream of Pink Lacoste
1.2207375586822
Lovestruck Vera Wang
1.2201226835964
Sogni del Mare Antonia`s Flowers
1.2196025457943
Lily Prune Love Ulric de Varens
1.2189613671929
Dream Angels Heavenly Shine Victoria`s Secret
1.2182298621978
Mei Alfred Sung
1.215811203996
Cabotine Aquarelle Gres
1.2157163325707
Allure eau de parfum Chanel
1.2148360274537
L'Eau par Kenzo pour Homme Kenzo
1.2138793563639
Omnia Crystalline Eau de Parfum Bvlgari
1.2127375457942
Cabotine Bleu Gres
1.2118986835964
L'Eau d’Issey Lotus Issey Miyake
1.2112543055746
L'Eau D'Issey Absolue Issey Miyake
1.2107547805994
Jasmine, Lotus and Green Tea Nicolai Bergmann
1.2099838159841
Imagine Lollia
1.2097056835964
Simply Cotton Mary Kay
1.2085605457942
Davidoff Cool Water Summer Dive Woman Davidoff
1.205286387173
Attimo Salvatore Ferragamo
1.2010676427972
Eau Egyptienne Cinq Mondes
1.200762601998
Fleur de Bambu Il Profvmo
1.200381300999
Love for Her Annayake
1.200381300999
Les Contes Bucoliques Fleur de Cerisier Parfums Berdoues
1.200381300999
Hinlay pour Homme Lorelyane
1.2001525203996
Blue-Green : Arnica (Natural) DSH Perfumes
1.2001525203996
Versant Charrier Parfums
1.2
Asdaf Arabian Oud
1.2
Singapore SIN The Scent of Departure
1.2
Seoul ICN The Scent of Departure
1.1999379737665
Turquatic M∙A∙C
1.1998584741859
Bianco Trussardi
1.1996298451155
Arden Beauty Elizabeth Arden
1.1983658059941
Aura by Swarovski Collection Mariage Swarovski
1.1979398767635
Fleur d`Eau Rochas
1.1967997243956
Rakaan Swiss Arabian
1.1951494641958
Blue Escape for Her Avon
1.1948245865935
Trish Trish McEvoy
1.1942907651948
Romance eau Fraiche Ralph Lauren
1.1934428146877
Romance Ralph Lauren
1.1930629746054
Clean Simply Soap Clean
1.1907087905895
C-Thru Emerald Sarantis
1.1884151223976
Lovely Girl Bourjois
1.1884151223976
Potion Prescriptives
1.1877287805994
Flowering Herbs Great American Scents
1.1865935203996
Silent Grove DS & Durga
1.1829310607794
L’Eau 2 Kenzo pour Femme Kenzo
1.1827661885915
Stay Gap
1.1827137443758
Lucky Number 6 Liz Claiborne
1.1824280815984
Real Alta Moda
1.1822755611988
Lumiere Aftelier
1.1818942601998
Loverly Coeur d’Esprit Natural Perfumes
1.1812432285518
Euphoria Eau de Toilette Calvin Klein
1.1809151223976
Happy Hour Women Gin Tonic
1.1802619537863
Charme La Perla
1.1800552293907
Turquatic M∙A∙C
1.1798083717685
Passport South Beach Paris Hilton
1.1797920407992
Lumiere D'Ambre Laura Mercier
1.1781391015786
Trussardi Delicate Rose Trussardi
1.1778929067338
Forbidden Rose Avril Lavigne
1.1777674233966
mat; yellow Masaki Matsushima
1.1772059250362
Bvlgari Man Bvlgari
1.1767760407992
Alisez Faberlic
1.1765797697705
Indian Summer Priscilla Presley
1.1756368567833
Miss Sixty Elixir Miss Sixty
1.1749437056356
Versace Versace
1.1742442447952
Little Kiss Me Salvador Dali
1.1738065278731
Euphoria Blossom Calvin Klein
1.173557902997
Australian Wild Jasmine Lucy B

Popular brands and perfumes: