Lotus

lat. Nelumbo nucifera

Group: Flowers

Lotus Nelumbo nucifera
Lotus Nelumbo nucifera
Lotus Nelumbo nucifera
Odor profile: floral note with watery, aqueous qualities, light and ethereal with lightly sweetish tonality



The lotus is a flower of antiquity and has long been associated with the history, culture, religion, ancient literature and arts and crafts of India.  Due to all of these characteristics, the lotus was selected as the national flower of India. It has been described in various mythological legends, epics, scriptures, Sanskrit literature and historical records.
 




Botanical Name - Nelumbo nucifera
Synonyms - Nelumbium nelumbo
                     Nelumbium speciosum
Family - Nympheaceae or Nelumbonaceae

















 


Waterlily (Nymphaea spp.) is another aquatic flower which resembles the lotus and people sometimes confuse the two.

NAMES

The family Nympheaceae has two important genera having aquatic species with beautiful and attractive flowers i.e. water lily and lotus.  The former belongs to the genera Nymphea and the latter is from Nelumbo. Moreover, the genus Nelumbo has only two species, N. nucifera (Indian lotus) and N. lutea (American lotus or yellow lotus).

Nelumbo lutea Nelumbo nucifera

Nelumbo lutea produces yellow flowers and is known as the American Lotus. In Ayurvedic nomenclature, the lotus is known as Kamala, Padma, Nalina, Arvind mahotpala, Rajeeva, Pushklara and in Unani, it is known as Nilofar, while in Siddha it is called Ambel.

DISTRIBUTION


Lotus had been introduced to Egypt by the Romans by about 50 BC. The lotus is a native to India, China and Japan and is widely distributed from tropical East Africa to North East Australia. Lotus is found growing in wetland habitats including floodplains, lagoons, marshes, swamps, rivers, lakes, ponds, pools and the backwaters of reservoirs.

BOTANY

Nelumbo nucifera is a large, perennial, aquatic, herbaceous plant. The rhizome of the plant becomes elongated, about 60 to 120 cm in length, 6 to 9 cm in diameter. It is farinaceous, white to buff-orange in color and edible. Leaves are large with a central stalk, blue-grey in color, peltate and coated with wax. The leaves of the lotus have a water repellent leaf surface and which has led to the termed the “lotus effect.” The leaves have self-cleaning capacity which is a result of dirt particles being picked up by water forms droplets due to the complex nanostructure of the leaf surface, which minimizes adhesion. Flowers are solitary, borne at or above the leaf level, single or double, fragrant, white, rosy or deep pink in color.

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS


Nelumbo nucifera contains a number of alkaloids—roemerine, nuciferine, nornuciferine, liensinine, isoliesinine, neferine, lotusine, armepavin etc. 
 

LOTUS IN INDIAN CULTURE AND RELIGION

In the Hindu religion all the three Brahminical deities, Brahma (the Creator), Vishnu (the Protector) and Shiva (the Destroyer) are associated with the lotus.

Three of the four arms of Lord Vishnu hold a conch, the wheel and the club while the fourth holds a lotus, which is probably the symbol of the created universe.

The Brahmana part of theTaittiriya Upanishada (before 800 BC) describes that the lotus has association with Prajapati (Brahma) in cosmogonic myths. When Brahma was sitting by the side of the waste water, he saw a solitary lotus leaf floating in the moving waters and thought it must rest on something. He then dived into the water in the form of a boar and finding earth below, broke off a fragment, brought it to the surface of the water and spread it out on the leaf, and that was the beginning of the earth.

Lakshmi

The lotus is the symbol of the goddess Lakshmi, being her divine seat. She sits on a fully opened lotus and holds up a lotus in her right hand.

All the gods and goddesses of Hinduism (Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Parvati, Durga, Rama and Surya), Buddhism (Buddha and Bodhisattva) and Jainism (Mahavir and others) are associated with the sacred lotus. They are shown sitting on the divine lotus or holding a lotus in the hand.

The lotus has inspired poets, artists and sculptors of both the ancient and present periods. The lotus shape has also been used in architecture.  A great example of this is the Bahá'í House of Worship in Delhi, India popularly known as the Lotus Temple due to its lotus-like shape. It was made in 1986.

Lotus motifs are also seen in textile designs and pottery, and it is also referred to in the folk songs and dances of India.

The lotus is figured in one of the postage stamps in India. Every year on the Republic Day, the Government of India awards honors like Padamshree, Padmabhushan, Padmavibhushan to the distinguished personality of the country.

The lotus symbolizes divineness, purity, beauty of the eyes and face, kind-heartedness, fragrance, coolness, fertility and prosperity. In the classical literature of many Asian cultures the lotus is represented in figurative form, representing elegance, beauty, perfection, purity and grace, being used often in poems and songs as an allegory for ideal feminine attributes.
 

USES

Nelumbo nucifera has been in cultivation in China, Japan and India from many years, and has been grown not only for its cultural and ornamental value, but also for medicinal uses and for its edible "seeds" and rhizomes. The rhizomes are roasted, pickled, candied or sliced and fried as chips.

Lotus rhizomes

A paste made from the nutlets is used as a filling in mooncakes, a traditional Chinese  pastry. The young leaves, leaf stalks and flowers are eaten as vegetables in India.

Almost all parts of the lotus plant are edible. In India, the fresh rhizomes are consumed as a vegetable, either roasted or in curry form. The dried rhizome slices are used in making curry or fried chips. The rhizomes are also frozen and pickled.

Lotus nuts

The nuts are sweet and delicious and are eaten in different ways, like raw, roasted,    boiled, or candied. The nuts are a rich source of protein and total carbohydrates, mainly starch.

The lotus flowers are used for extraction of perfume. The lotus perfume available in the trade is a blend of patchouli, benzoin and styrax with phenylethyl and cinnamic alcohols.

The distinctive fruiting receptacles are widely sold throughout the world for decorative  purposes and for dried flower arranging.

The Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP), a nationalist political party of India uses the lotus as its election symbol.

In Buddhist temples, lotus is burned in powder form as ceremonial incense.
 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Lotus

1.5038103612516
KenzoKi White Lotus (Relaxing) Kenzo
1.5036638088957
Fior di Loto Tesori d`Oriente
1.501685352092
Lotus Petal The Body Shop
1.5010258664908
Oscar Sheer Freesia Oscar de la Renta
1.5009525903129
Love to Kiss Victoria`s Secret
1.5008060379571
Fleurs de Jontue Lotus de Nuit Revlon
1.5001465523558
Savann MCMC Fragrances
1.5001465523558
Willow and Water Library of Flowers
1.4918154554847
Ralph Lauren Big Pony 1 for Women Ralph Lauren
1.464102666227
Nautica Sunset Voyage Nautica
1.4585019136074
Summer White Sunset Avon
1.4286442761779
Notes from Michael Glenplaid Michael Kors
1.417546314135
L`Eau par Kenzo Love L`Eau pour Homme Kenzo
1.4136961267678
Omnia Crystalline Bvlgari
1.4134177225031
Alabaster Banana Republic
1.4108623333333
Euphoria Calvin Klein
1.4065215798344
Surreal Garden Avon
1.4002931047117
Hamsa Celine Leora
1.4002198285337
Aubusson Flore Aubusson
1.3847615523558
White Lotus Illuminum
1.3809353704111
Eternity Summer Calvin Klein
1.3641489332454
Lotus Blossom Susanne Lang
1.3640756570675
L`Eau Par Kenzo Pour Homme Limited Edition Kenzo
1.3608026449769
Bright Crystal Versace
1.3540544751227
Dunhill Pure Alfred Dunhill
1.3470670759141
In The Mood For Love Tender Gianfranco Ferre
1.3348664083681
U by Ungaro for Her Avon
1.3338459332454
Siren Impulse
1.3303225847439
L'Eau d'Issey Pour Homme Issey Miyake
1.3263134947608
Rose Aurore Eau Fraiche L`Occitane en Provence
1.3159355523558
Vida Wild Lotus Romane
1.3119078546933
Green Tea Lotus Elizabeth Arden
1.3055366345717
Un Jardin Sur Le Nil Hermes
1.3015387997362
Lotus Matthew Williamson
1.2952904188466
L`Eau Par Kenzo Pour Femme Limited Edition Kenzo
1.2929609424049
Dream Angels Blush Eau de Parfum Victoria`s Secret
1.291905980362
L`Eau d`Issey Reflection In A Drop Issey Miyake
1.2876191806258
U by Ungaro for Her Emanuel Ungaro
1.2863002094233
Et Plus Si Affinites Chantal Thomass
1.2857872761779
Moon Shadow Library of Flowers
1.284176604675
L'eau d'Issey Eau de Parfum Issey Miyake
1.2820560379571
L`Eau par Kenzo Love L`Eau Kenzo
1.2820238033267
Black Orchid Tom Ford
1.2755847709387
Dalistyle Salvador Dali
1.274838018319
Lotus Garden Pacifica
1.272727
Collection Privee Rubis Faberlic
1.27203048289
Nautica Voyage Nautica
1.2712277028651
Eclat Weekend Oriflame
1.2691583900491
Dynastie Mademoiselle Princesse Marina De Bourbon
1.2668164070492
5:40 pm in Madagascar Kenzo
1.2662831321902
Belara Mary Kay
1.2658784188466
Exotics Tempting Berry Victoria`s Secret
1.2634431806258
Lotus Rose Les Parfums de Rosine
1.2618283232945
L'Eau d’Issey Lotus Issey Miyake
1.2613189712025
Lotus Sake Tokyo Milk Parfumarie Curiosite
1.260989341467
L'eau d'Issey Issey Miyake
1.2566954568037
Ungaro Party Emanuel Ungaro
1.2561662853374
Mexx Pure for Her Mexx
1.2531164358467
Dream Angels Divine Victoria`s Secret
1.2505862094233
Agua de Bambu Adolfo Dominguez
1.2505129332454
Hinlay pour Femme Lorelyane
1.2503663808896
Lotus Lavender Aromatic Durance de Provence
1.2501465523558
Humanity MCMC Fragrances
1.25
Black Ink Giorgio Monti
1.2484440261596
Incanto Bliss Salvatore Ferragamo
1.2471540562028
Pure DKNY Donna Karan
1.2442514461786
Curious Britney Spears Britney Spears
1.2427938088957
Lismore Waterford
1.2359534856012
Intimate Vanilla Neil Morris
1.2358802094233
Magnetic for Her Mexx
1.2334802185828
Nenufar Scents of Time
1.2322924947608
Trouble eau Legere Boucheron
1.2315017617791
Cool Tropic Palm Comptoir Sud Pacifique
1.2310621047117
Empress Lilly Stacked Style
1.2304913298161
Into the Blue Escada
1.2273982565399
Blue Charm Azzaro
1.2271897002272
Treselle Avon
1.223399646589
L`Eau d`Issey Une Goutte de Nuage Issey Miyake
1.2231249618964
Cool Water Davidoff
1.2223685523558
Moulinette Soeurs Adelie Anthropologie
1.2223685523558
Sula Lily Lotus Susanne Lang
1.2200689712025
Sogni del Mare Antonia`s Flowers
1.2197358376933
Lily Prune Love Ulric de Varens
1.2194276950245
Simply Cotton Mary Kay
1.2189272185828
Dream Angels Heavenly Shine Victoria`s Secret
1.2181970379571
Mei Alfred Sung
1.21773419235
Lovestruck Vera Wang
1.2158980759141
Cabotine Aquarelle Gres
1.2156013335532
Allure eau de parfum Chanel
1.2150263704111
Imagine Lollia
1.214800352092
Blue Escape for Her Avon
1.2147256570675
Gold Diva Roberto Verino
1.2130173900491
Cabotine Bleu Gres
1.212696311497
Omnia Crystalline Eau de Parfum Bvlgari
1.2124175981534
Attimo Salvatore Ferragamo
1.2122675523558
Muschio Marino Torre of Tuscany
1.2107458285337
Jasmine, Lotus and Green Tea Nicolai Bergmann
1.209655941086
L'Eau D'Issey Absolue Issey Miyake
1.2095016635891
Cheap & Chic Light Clouds Moschino
1.208877523485
L'Eau par Kenzo pour Homme Kenzo
1.2084740091595
Davidoff Cool Water Summer Dive Woman Davidoff
1.207776314135
Snowing Rose Masaki Matsushima
1.2073793690921
Turquatic M∙A∙C
1.2070110942332
Natural Vitality Adidas
1.205969998681
Dream of Pink Lacoste
1.2053965615154
Aura by Swarovski Collection Mariage Swarovski
1.2010258664908
Eau Egyptienne Cinq Mondes
1.2005129332454
Cool Water Ocean Radiance Davidoff
1.2005129332454
Les Contes Bucoliques Fleur de Cerisier Parfums Berdoues
1.2004396570675
Love for Her Annayake
1.2003663808896
Hinlay pour Homme Lorelyane
1.2001465523558
Blue-Green : Arnica (Natural) DSH Perfumes
1.2
Asdaf Arabian Oud
1.1996466086319
Bianco Trussardi
1.1978304738038
Fleur d`Eau Rochas
1.1966607997362
Rakaan Swiss Arabian
1.1966434515278
Arden Beauty Elizabeth Arden
1.1947993900491
Trish Trish McEvoy
1.1942131806258
Romance eau Fraiche Ralph Lauren
1.1930702670184
Clean Simply Soap Clean
1.1918690562761
Charme La Perla
1.1904773612516
C-Thru Emerald Sarantis
1.1893355523558
Silent Grove DS & Durga
1.1893124646442
Passport South Beach Paris Hilton
1.1889845508903
Romance Ralph Lauren
1.188379314135
Potion Prescriptives
1.188379314135
Lovely Girl Bourjois
1.1877198285337
Flowering Herbs Great American Scents
1.1868001989448
C-Thru Pearl Garden Sarantis
1.1828663206566
Euphoria Eau de Toilette Calvin Klein
1.1827111518282
Stay Gap
1.1824042094233
Real Alta Moda
1.1823309332454
Lumiere Aftelier
1.1818912761779
Loverly Coeur d’Esprit Natural Perfumes
1.181818
Seoul ICN The Scent of Departure
1.1809434554847
Lucky Number 6 Liz Claiborne
1.180879314135
Happy Hour Women Gin Tonic
1.1800615327178
Turquatic M∙A∙C
1.1799999332454
Lumiere D'Ambre Laura Mercier
1.1794926622701
Forbidden Rose Avril Lavigne
1.1789159698835
Trussardi Delicate Rose Trussardi
1.1780643900491
Sphinx Hommage a Greta Garbo Gres
1.1777166950245
mat; yellow Masaki Matsushima
1.1775074842823
L’Eau 2 Kenzo pour Femme Kenzo
1.1767641047117
Alisez Faberlic
1.1753861989448
Miss Sixty Elixir Miss Sixty
1.1742793808896
Paname Paname Libertin Louison Technique Indiscrete
1.1742459044479
Little Kiss Me Salvador Dali
1.1740864082949
Bvlgari Man Bvlgari
1.1728275903129
Fleur de Bambu Il Profvmo

Popular brands and perfumes: