Lotus

lat. Nelumbo nucifera

Group: FLOWERS

Lotus Nelumbo nucifera
Lotus Nelumbo nucifera
Lotus Nelumbo nucifera
Odor profile: floral note with watery, aqueous qualities, light and ethereal with lightly sweetish tonality



The lotus is a flower of antiquity and has long been associated with the history, culture, religion, ancient literature and arts and crafts of India.  Due to all of these characteristics, the lotus was selected as the national flower of India. It has been described in various mythological legends, epics, scriptures, Sanskrit literature and historical records.
 




Botanical Name - Nelumbo nucifera
Synonyms - Nelumbium nelumbo
                     Nelumbium speciosum
Family - Nympheaceae or Nelumbonaceae

















 


Waterlily (Nymphaea spp.) is another aquatic flower which resembles the lotus and people sometimes confuse the two.

NAMES

The family Nympheaceae has two important genera having aquatic species with beautiful and attractive flowers i.e. water lily and lotus.  The former belongs to the genera Nymphea and the latter is from Nelumbo. Moreover, the genus Nelumbo has only two species, N. nucifera (Indian lotus) and N. lutea (American lotus or yellow lotus).

Nelumbo lutea Nelumbo nucifera

Nelumbo lutea produces yellow flowers and is known as the American Lotus. In Ayurvedic nomenclature, the lotus is known as Kamala, Padma, Nalina, Arvind mahotpala, Rajeeva, Pushklara and in Unani, it is known as Nilofar, while in Siddha it is called Ambel.

DISTRIBUTION


Lotus had been introduced to Egypt by the Romans by about 50 BC. The lotus is a native to India, China and Japan and is widely distributed from tropical East Africa to North East Australia. Lotus is found growing in wetland habitats including floodplains, lagoons, marshes, swamps, rivers, lakes, ponds, pools and the backwaters of reservoirs.

BOTANY

Nelumbo nucifera is a large, perennial, aquatic, herbaceous plant. The rhizome of the plant becomes elongated, about 60 to 120 cm in length, 6 to 9 cm in diameter. It is farinaceous, white to buff-orange in color and edible. Leaves are large with a central stalk, blue-grey in color, peltate and coated with wax. The leaves of the lotus have a water repellent leaf surface and which has led to the termed the “lotus effect.” The leaves have self-cleaning capacity which is a result of dirt particles being picked up by water forms droplets due to the complex nanostructure of the leaf surface, which minimizes adhesion. Flowers are solitary, borne at or above the leaf level, single or double, fragrant, white, rosy or deep pink in color.

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS


Nelumbo nucifera contains a number of alkaloids—roemerine, nuciferine, nornuciferine, liensinine, isoliesinine, neferine, lotusine, armepavin etc. 
 

LOTUS IN INDIAN CULTURE AND RELIGION

In the Hindu religion all the three Brahminical deities, Brahma (the Creator), Vishnu (the Protector) and Shiva (the Destroyer) are associated with the lotus.

Three of the four arms of Lord Vishnu hold a conch, the wheel and the club while the fourth holds a lotus, which is probably the symbol of the created universe.

The Brahmana part of theTaittiriya Upanishada (before 800 BC) describes that the lotus has association with Prajapati (Brahma) in cosmogonic myths. When Brahma was sitting by the side of the waste water, he saw a solitary lotus leaf floating in the moving waters and thought it must rest on something. He then dived into the water in the form of a boar and finding earth below, broke off a fragment, brought it to the surface of the water and spread it out on the leaf, and that was the beginning of the earth.

Lakshmi

The lotus is the symbol of the goddess Lakshmi, being her divine seat. She sits on a fully opened lotus and holds up a lotus in her right hand.

All the gods and goddesses of Hinduism (Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Parvati, Durga, Rama and Surya), Buddhism (Buddha and Bodhisattva) and Jainism (Mahavir and others) are associated with the sacred lotus. They are shown sitting on the divine lotus or holding a lotus in the hand.

The lotus has inspired poets, artists and sculptors of both the ancient and present periods. The lotus shape has also been used in architecture.  A great example of this is the Bahá'í House of Worship in Delhi, India popularly known as the Lotus Temple due to its lotus-like shape. It was made in 1986.

Lotus motifs are also seen in textile designs and pottery, and it is also referred to in the folk songs and dances of India.

The lotus is figured in one of the postage stamps in India. Every year on the Republic Day, the Government of India awards honors like Padamshree, Padmabhushan, Padmavibhushan to the distinguished personality of the country.

The lotus symbolizes divineness, purity, beauty of the eyes and face, kind-heartedness, fragrance, coolness, fertility and prosperity. In the classical literature of many Asian cultures the lotus is represented in figurative form, representing elegance, beauty, perfection, purity and grace, being used often in poems and songs as an allegory for ideal feminine attributes.
 

USES

Nelumbo nucifera has been in cultivation in China, Japan and India from many years, and has been grown not only for its cultural and ornamental value, but also for medicinal uses and for its edible "seeds" and rhizomes. The rhizomes are roasted, pickled, candied or sliced and fried as chips.

Lotus rhizomes

A paste made from the nutlets is used as a filling in mooncakes, a traditional Chinese  pastry. The young leaves, leaf stalks and flowers are eaten as vegetables in India.

Almost all parts of the lotus plant are edible. In India, the fresh rhizomes are consumed as a vegetable, either roasted or in curry form. The dried rhizome slices are used in making curry or fried chips. The rhizomes are also frozen and pickled.

Lotus nuts

The nuts are sweet and delicious and are eaten in different ways, like raw, roasted,    boiled, or candied. The nuts are a rich source of protein and total carbohydrates, mainly starch.

The lotus flowers are used for extraction of perfume. The lotus perfume available in the trade is a blend of patchouli, benzoin and styrax with phenylethyl and cinnamic alcohols.

The distinctive fruiting receptacles are widely sold throughout the world for decorative  purposes and for dried flower arranging.

The Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP), a nationalist political party of India uses the lotus as its election symbol.

In Buddhist temples, lotus is burned in powder form as ceremonial incense.
 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Lotus Perfumes

1.5037494621673
KenzoKi White Lotus (Relaxing) Kenzo
1.5014751982298
Lotus Petal The Body Shop
1.5012293318581
Mitsouko Fleur de Lotus Guerlain
1.5008605323007
Fleurs de Jontue Lotus de Nuit Revlon
1.5007990657078
Love to Kiss Victoria`s Secret
1.5007990657078
Scent Essence - Blooming Lotus Avon
1.5004917327433
Tian Tan King`s Palace Perfumery
1.5004917327433
Willow and Water Library of Flowers
1.5000614665929
Bella Jade Oil Tulip
1.5000614665929
Passion Blossom Tea Avon
1.5000614665929
LXXXV Zara
1.5
Super Cambodian Malaysian Agarwood Oil Majid Muzaffar Iterji
1.5
Bely Lotos Dilis Parfum
1.5
Japanese Lotus Flowers Cliven
1.4999385334071
Doriane Love Yves de Sistelle
1.4864963865019
Ralph Lauren Big Pony 1 for Women Ralph Lauren
1.4840553997787
Lotus Flower Demeter Fragrance
1.4833277238921
Alabaster Banana Republic
1.4596016637163
Nautica Sunset Voyage Nautica
1.4446898663716
Fleur de Sephora Lotus Sephora
1.4286324665929
Notes from Michael Glenplaid Michael Kors
1.4216533333333
Euphoria Calvin Klein
1.4198467327433
Cool Water Ocean Radiance Davidoff
1.416667
Lotus & Bamboo Mary Kay
1.4014137316369
Lotus Matthew Williamson
1.3964870612822
Fior di Loto Tesori d`Oriente
1.3958462729731
Omnia Crystalline Bvlgari
1.3949554599545
Summer White Sunset Avon
1.3919186659291
Lotus Blossom Susanne Lang
1.3882033986723
Oscar Sheer Freesia Oscar de la Renta
1.3881966410966
Bright Crystal Versace
1.3860933008175
L'Eau d'Issey Pour Homme Issey Miyake
1.3850452661503
Siren Impulse
1.3750614665929
L'Eau d'Issey Parfum Issey Miyake
1.375
Amar Ésika
1.3640662661503
L'Eau par Kenzo pour Homme Limited Edition Kenzo
1.3638203997787
Savann MCMC Fragrances
1.3575117995574
Hinlay Sexy & Zen Lorelyane
1.3573488586268
Dunhill Pure Alfred Dunhill
1.3442896626099
Dream Angels Blush Eau de Parfum Victoria`s Secret
1.3421594654865
L'Eau par Kenzo pour Femme Limited Edition Kenzo
1.3420318198414
Black Orchid Tom Ford
1.3402458663716
I Love Delight Dzintars
1.3346852650439
Lotus Sake Tokyo Milk Parfumarie Curiosite
1.3335173997787
Black Lotus Aziza World Fragrances
1.3334559331858
Lotus da Tailandia Mahogany
1.3333944665929
Shumoa Majid Muzaffar Iterji
1.333333
Morena Flor Beijo de Frescor Avon
1.3316195991149
Agua de Bambu Adolfo Dominguez
1.3277937973446
Rose Aurore Eau Fraiche L`Occitane en Provence
1.3271935439793
Un Jardin Sur Le Nil Hermes
1.3231500646014
Capteur de Reves Lise Watier
1.3222280657078
L'Eau par Kenzo Love L'Eau Kenzo
1.3200614665929
I Love Mystic Dzintars
1.32
Love Love City
1.318413190485
Fijian Water Lotus The Body Shop
1.318182
Les Jardins de Bouddha Parfums et Senteurs du Pays Basque
1.315686063495
Mexx Pure for Her Mexx
1.3086139988936
Exotics Tempting Berry Victoria`s Secret
1.3079993329645
Lotus Kokeshi
1.3028231957711
Nautica Voyage Nautica
1.3
Lotus Flower and Ginger Lily Marks and Spencer
1.2986317305305
Rain Commodity
1.2973757294241
Turquatic M∙A∙C
1.296296
Pina Colada Apple Parfums
1.294118
Napoli Mod.1 Parfum Bar
1.290323
Vida Wild Lotus Romane
1.2875685356199
Clean Simply Soap Clean
1.2858369331858
Moon Shadow Library of Flowers
1.285714
Golden Lotus Pokrovka Trading House
1.2813729331858
Maliqá Lamis Atef
1.2788741280964
Lotus Garden Pacifica
1.2757388630524
Rock N Rebel Flirt!
1.2734290502182
Green Tea Lotus Elizabeth Arden
1.2731500646014
U by Ungaro for Her Emanuel Ungaro
1.2723509988936
Hamsa Celine Leora
1.2710690657078
Clin d'Oeil Lovely Girl Bourjois
1.270833
Tabu Segredos Dana
1.269907132522
Itoh MIKMOI
1.2693206615035
L'Eau d’Issey Lotus Issey Miyake
1.2681643329645
Hinlay pour Homme Lorelyane
1.2667899331858
Blue Lotus Tabac Artemisia Natural Perfume
1.2660994654865
Hinlay pour Femme Lorelyane
1.2658222628312
L`Eau d`Issey Reflection In A Drop Issey Miyake
1.2644819776262
L'eau d'Issey Issey Miyake
1.2637726659291
Mila Schön Lei Mila Schön
1.2632194665929
Lou Lou Arabian Oud
1.2583037327433
Aqua for Her Avon
1.257700798451
Sogni del Mare Antonia`s Flowers
1.2566938287541
L'eau d'Issey Eau de Parfum Issey Miyake
1.2558393263261
L`Eau d`Issey Une Goutte de Nuage Issey Miyake
1.2553488586268
U by Ungaro for Her Avon
1.2507990657078
Nude Bouquet Zara
1.2503687995574
Lotus Lavender Aromatic Durance en Provence
1.2503073329645
Aubusson Flore Aubusson
1.2501229331858
Musk Warda No. 3 Abdul Karim Al Faransi
1.2501229331858
Humanity MCMC Fragrances
1.25
Black Ink Giorgio Monti
1.25
Misetu Soivohle
1.25
Fresh Idea Apple Parfums
1.25
Synthesized Lotus Root Malin+Goetz
1.2496471280964
Lismore Waterford
1.2469509845104
5:40 PM in Madagascar Kenzo
1.246825184953
Dream Angels Divine Victoria`s Secret
1.2466642610486
Pure DKNY Donna Karan
1.2459445866986
Curious Britney Spears Britney Spears
1.2425196460139
Turquatic M∙A∙C
1.241569792919
Imagine Lollia
1.2394243986723
L'Eau par Kenzo Electric Wave pour Femme Kenzo
1.2364715858381
Eclat Weekend Oriflame
1.2354169331858
Marine Claudia Scattolini
1.233512317475
Incanto Bliss Salvatore Ferragamo
1.2332276637163
Dream Angels Heavenly Shine Victoria`s Secret
1.2324989243346
Dream of Pink Lacoste
1.2321903274325
Eternity Summer Calvin Klein
1.231445132522
Cool Tropic Palm Comptoir Sud Pacifique
1.2308304665929
Nothing is Sacred (Ничё Святова) Denis Simachev
1.2304749298666
Dalistyle Salvador Dali
1.2304299988936
Calypso Marine Calypso Christiane Celle
1.2296919977872
Davidoff Cool Water Summer Dive Woman Davidoff
1.2277045300879
Blue Escape for Her Avon
1.2274573997787
Flowering Herbs Great American Scents
1.2273344665929
Sensual Obsession Johan B
1.2261746590448
Cool Water Davidoff
1.2252060646014
Simply Cotton Mary Kay
1.2225293329645
White Lotus Illuminum
1.2223449331858
Moulinette Soeurs Adelie Anthropologie
1.2222834665929
Peach Blossom Valley 桃花源记 RE CLASSIFIED RE调香室
1.222222
Bolzano Mod.1 Parfum Bar
1.2219402650439
Love Olympic Orchids Artisan Perfumes
1.2209633997787
Alisez Faberlic
1.2204489977872
Ungaro Party Emanuel Ungaro
1.2203673997787
Wistful Aroma Body Mist Amway
1.2201843997787
Potion Joya
1.2197515681357
Omnia Crystalline Eau de Parfum Bvlgari
1.2196963997787
Blue-Green: Arnica DSH Perfumes
1.2190573329645
Rosa romántica Bottega Verde
1.2184287973446
Esencia Femme Loewe
1.2182515323007
Mei Alfred Sung
1.2180056659291
Set Sail South Seas Tommy Bahama
1.2176983329645
Boum Mango Jeanne Arthes
1.217391
Collection Privee Alizes Faberlic
1.2169153318581
360° Pink Perry Ellis
1.2167576774233
Lovestruck Vera Wang
1.2146860592538
Allure eau de parfum Chanel
1.2146588575204
Belara Mary Kay
1.2145318663716
Necco Sweethearts Call Me Demeter Fragrance
1.2144089331858
Provence Purple Novae Plus
1.2144089331858
Lotus Pool Anna Zworykina Perfumes
1.2143474665929
Lotus Garden Judith Williams

Advertisement

Advertisement

Popular brands and perfumes: