Pepper

lat. Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)

Group: Spices

Pepper Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)
Pepper Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)
Pepper Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)
Odor profile: hot and bracing note, short-lived and earthy spice, rendered through steam distillation of the berries of the piper negrum bush, which is very popular as a bright accent top note in fragrances. Featured prominently in Piper Negrum by L.Villoresi.

A depiction of Calicut, published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade


Black Pepper, christened as “King of Spices” and “Black gold” is the most important and the most widely used spice in the world, occupying a position that is supreme and unique. Black pepper essential oil is stimulating, warming, comforting and cheerful. The quality of pepper is contributed to by two components. Piperine that contributes the pungency and volatile oil that is responsible for the aroma and flavor.
 


Botanical name: Piper nigrum

Family: Piperaceae
 



COMMON NAMES

Ayurvedic–Maricha (Charaka, Sushruta), Vellaja, Uushana, Suvrrita, Krishna

UnaniFilfil siyaah, Filfil safed

SiddhaMilagu

English–Black Pepper

Parts Used-Fruit

Common method of extraction-Steam distillation of the dried, unripe fruit

Aroma-Pleasant, fresh, spicy and peppery, warm, woody

Note-Middle

Blends well with-Sandalwood, rosemary, citrus, lavender, ginger, clove, lemon, coriander, geranium

HABITAT

Black pepper is a native plant of the Malabar, a region on the Western Coast of South India and originated in the tropical evergreen forests of the Western Ghats of India. The Malabar Coast of India was the center of the pepper trade from time immemorial. The plant is cultivated in the hot and moist parts of India, Sri Lanka and other tropical countries like Malaysia, China and Madagascar. However, Vietnam is the world’s largest producer and exporter of pepper.

HISTORY

Pepper has been highly esteemed in India since time immemorial and was one of the first of the oriental spices to be introduced into Europe, being well known to the ancient Greeks and Romans. From the Malabar Coast of India, pepper was carried by overland routes, as well as by sea. Initially black pepper was taken from the Malabar Coast to the Indonesian islands, and then it spread to various Pacific islands, South East Asian countries and later to tropical Africa and America.

BOTANY

Pepper belongs to family Piperaceae and genus Piper. Apart from black pepper (P. nigrum), the genus also includes economically important species like

P. longum–long pepper
P. betle–betel leaf
P. chaba–Java long pepper
P. cubeba–Cubeb, Tailed pepper

Piper nigrum is a perennial climber, climbing by means of roots which adhere to the support tree. The old stem becomes thick and produces numerous lateral branches. Runner shoots arise from the base of the vine. Leaves are thick, coriaceous, glabrous shape but much variable—commonly ovate, elliptic or elliptic lanceolate.  The size varies from small to large. The base is round, acute or cordate, the tip acuminate, and tge upper surface is dark green to light green, with lower surface being dull green. The pendent spikes form inflorescence and are borne opposite the leaves on the plagiotropic branches. They are 13-15 cm long, bearing 50-150 minute flowers borne in the axils of ovate fleshy bracts. The flowers may be unisexual, with monoecious or dioecious forms, or may be hermaphrodite.
 

ESSENTIAL OIL

Most of the pepper oil in commerce is produced in Western Europe and North America from imported black pepper. The most important types of pepper for processing into essential oil are the Indonesian (Lampong) and Indian (Malabar). The pepper is crushed to a coarse powder and on steam distillation in which ammonia is evolved (in common with, for example, ginger, pimento and cubebs) it yields a colorless to a pale green essential oil with a mild, non-pungent flavor. Pepper oil is used in perfumery and flavorings. Black pepper oil is obtained upon steam distillation of the spice as an almost water-white or pale greenish-grey, mobile liquid, which becomes viscous on aging.

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

Fruits yielded piperine, piperetine and piperidine, amides-peperyline, piperoleins A and B and N-iso-butyl-cicosa-trans-2-trans-4-dienamide. The major constituent piperine (2-5%) showed CNS-depressant, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and hepato-protective properties.

USES


• Dried seeds are used in prescriptions, for cough, rhinitis, consumption, anemia, fainting.

• Black pepper oil is used as blended massage oil, or diluted in a bath to assist with circulation, bruises, rheumatoid arthritis and muscular aches and pains.

• Black pepper is also used as a constituent in a blended cream which is commonly used to provide relief in muscular pain.

• In the winters, black pepper essential oil becomes a great substitute used as warmth-generating aromatherapy constituents.

• Black pepper essential oil is used as an aromatherapy massage oil, to increase the blood circulation.

• The essential oil can make a room feel warmer and cozier when used in an aromatherapy diffuser.


 

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta (cshekhar)

Fragrantica Writer

 

 



 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Pepper

1.5003941663382
Zonda Fueguia 1833
1.5002627775588
Popy Popy Moreni
1.5001970831691
Pimienta Negra Bottega Verde
1.5001313887794
True American Eagle
1.5001313887794
Bollicine Zeromolecole
1.5000656943897
SPF Forever Free Man Special Edition Springfield
1.5
Arles Morph
1.5
Black Jasmine Compagnie de Provence
1.5
Burn for Him Demeter Fragrance
1.5
Aurien Nigra Eudora
1.4960413333333
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4446410831691
Hemp Black Pepper Dr. Taffi
1.4445096943897
Hot! Fragrances Brown Ulric de Varens
1.4421679148601
Gentleman Aramis
1.428571
Club 6 VIP Eudora
1.4149624719485
Lady GoGo Smell Bent
1.4055503326764
Type B Henrik Vibskov
1.4009854158455
Sunshine Edition for Men Paul Smith
1.4001752918145
Poivre Piquant L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.4001313887794
The Man From Ipanema The Fragrance Kitchen
1.4
Poivre Colonial Phaedon
1.3999343056103
Cuba Strass Zebra Cuba Paris
1.3889448621732
The Beat for Men Burberry
1.3833826924189
Declaration Essence Limited Edition Cartier
1.3762481934043
Bruce Willis LR
1.3750656943897
Bespoke Gianni Campagna
1.3621621102352
Velvet Love Dolce&Gabbana
1.3560829210353
Crystal Noir Versace
1.3373750014453
Bang Marc Jacobs
1.3355009148601
Rococo for Men Joop!
1.3343841102352
Bazar Summer Fragrance New Christian Lacroix
1.3343841102352
Piper Leather Illuminum
1.3337271663382
Mouse Cologne Roccobarocco
1.3335300831691
Kumquat Alhambra Comptoir Sud Pacifique
1.3334643887794
Eaux d’Euskadi Parfums et Senteurs du Pays Basque
1.3334643887794
Taiga DayNa Decker
1.3333986943897
Zagara e Patchouli Dr. Vranjes Firenze
1.3280116924189
Swiss Army Mountain Water Victorinox Swiss Army
1.3255255551176
Elixir Black Pepper C.O.Bigelow
1.3243053848377
Les Saisons Hiver Van Cleef & Arpels
1.3185391731704
Un Jardin Apres la Mousson Hermes
1.3180226092498
Blue For Men Rasasi
1.3179198607279
Patchouli Empire CB I Hate Perfume
1.3165924950729
60's Mod Avon
1.3161831663382
Corsica Voluspa
1.3159860831691
Colony Eliana Jequiti
1.3151934699777
Hot Couture White Collection Givenchy
1.310351690448
Bianco Trussardi
1.3081518607279
Iceberg Effusion Man Iceberg
1.3040730521613
Electrify Me Avon
1.3039423630272
Miracle Lancome
1.3029212497701
L'Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.3020477620549
Allure Homme Sport Chanel
1.3017307730916
La Fille de Berlin Serge Lutens
1.3016957736171
Collection Extraordinaire Cologne Noire Van Cleef & Arpels
1.3004598607279
Marine Jovoy Paris
1.3004598607279
Ultraviolet Aurore Borealis Edition Paco Rabanne
1.3004211667324
Hot Couture Givenchy
1.3000656943897
Members Only P1
1.2950831082644
Zara for Him Zara
1.2948406382867
City Rush for Him Avon
1.2868592918145
Hermessence Poivre Samarcande Hermes
1.2866994158455
Madagascar Spice Pacifica
1.2857796943897
Axis Black Sense of Space Creations
1.2856842204704
Liquid Gold Euphoria Men Calvin Klein
1.2853183036395
S8 Oriflame
1.2843503036395
Sandalwood L`Erbolario
1.2825108607279
L for Women Clive Christian
1.2805255551176
La Raison Pure L`Antichambre
1.2766503326764
Confidentiel Fragonard
1.2743812667192
Tommy Bahama Men Tommy Bahama
1.2737061313888
Ofresia Diptyque
1.2733182495073
Intense Pepper Montale
1.2729897775588
No. 48 Roter Mohn Frau Tonis Parfum
1.2728583887794
Presidente Emper
1.2728583887794
Spice Natural Scent Apivita
1.272727
Liva Atelier Flou
1.272727
Tantric Notions Coeur d’Esprit Natural Perfumes
1.2667983887794
Meteorite Cuarzo The Circle
1.2663189148601
Platinum Oriflame
1.2635521663382
N° XIII Poivre Sichuan Mad et Len
1.2602165216135
The One Gentleman Dolce&Gabbana
1.2580509360137
Del Mar Baldessarini Baldessarini
1.2567535260807
Uomini Black O Boticario
1.252627775588
Mexx Black for Him Mexx
1.2524963868086
Balle de Match Nicolai Parfumeur Createur
1.2517737485219
Unplugged for Him Avon
1.2507883326764
Black Tea Murdock London
1.2507226382867
Aqua Colonia Vetyver Florascent
1.2504598607279
Sander for Men Summer Cologne Jil Sander
1.2504598607279
Apparition Parfum Revelation Emanuel Ungaro
1.2504458532387
Lacoste Pour Femme Lacoste
1.2503284719485
Opportune Sport Amway
1.2502194680068
Red Musk The Body Shop
1.2501313887794
:P Nasengold
1.2501313887794
Warm Herbal Citrus JoAnne Bassett
1.2500656943897
Mila Schön Uomo Mila Schön
1.25
Shozan Black Princesse Marina De Bourbon
1.249546875969
Echo Davidoff
1.2494647946393
Eau des Merveilles Hermes
1.2485560112994
Opus 1870 Penhaligon`s
1.2469896363159
212 Men Ice Carolina Herrera
1.2468561914335
Miracle Intense Lancome
1.2458071373013
In Blue Armand Basi
1.241100831691
Ti Amo: Iris Hilde Soliani
1.2389048257785
Poivre 23 London Le Labo
1.2379370792274
Rouge Christian Lacroix
1.2378504369991
Black Suede Touch Avon
1.2369176687689
F by Ferragamo Black Salvatore Ferragamo
1.2367383558008
Custom Alfred Dunhill
1.2365341991854
Sensuous Estée Lauder
1.2352254990146
Thallium Sport (Limited Edition) Yves de Sistelle
1.2348313326764
Albi Laura Tonatto
1.2343959152542
Opium Pour Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.2340481373013
Preparation Parfumee Andree Putman
1.233396775588
Homme Nicole Farhi
1.2328439379845
Innocent Rock Thierry Mugler
1.2316887214558
Indulgence Oriflame
1.2315644733938
Oxygene Lanvin
1.2315573326764
Eau des Merveilles 10th Anniversary Edition Hermes
1.231425943897
Black Extreme Mandarina Duck
1.2312945551176
Sensualite Valeur Absolue
1.2311631663382
Aperture Ulrich Lang
1.2309660831691
Aurora Farmacia SS. Annunziata
1.2309154517146
Nu Yves Saint Laurent
1.2309003887794
Trance Essence Genie in a Bottle C.O.Bigelow
1.229884887794
Jacomo de Jacomo Deep Blue Jacomo
1.2288349148601
Max Mara Le Parfum Zeste & Musc Max Mara
1.2278642495073
Al Shariga Al-Rehab
1.2276014719485
Comme des Garcons Series 1 Leaves: Mint Comme des Garcons
1.2274700831691
Provoca Natura
1.226514690448
Sex Pistols Etat Libre d`Orange
1.2265012529234
Givenchy pour Homme Blue Label Givenchy
1.2258012721062
Polo Double Black Ralph Lauren
1.2257626092498
PG12 Hyperessence Matale Parfumerie Generale
1.225656943897
Accord Boise Ajmal
1.2251247458941
Allure Pour Homme Chanel
1.2250180733149
Paradise Oriflame
1.224849775588
Blue Carnation Roger & Gallet
1.2245380270661
Malaise of the 1970's Etat Libre d`Orange
1.2243131210091
Euphoria Men Calvin Klein
1.2234859896203
Declaration d'Un Soir Cartier
1.2230760270661
Unveil Ajmal
1.2227475551176
Aventure Galimard
1.2227475551176
Ted Baker Woman Limited Editon Ted Baker
1.2226818607279
Jette Eau de Parfum Jette Joop
1.2226818607279
Eau des Merveilles Au Bal des Etoiles Hermes
1.2225504719485
Caine Pascal Schaller
1.2222876943897
Bandit Emper
1.222222
Green Miraculum

Popular brands and perfumes: