Pepper

lat. Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)

Group: Spices

Pepper Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)
Pepper Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)
Pepper Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)
Odor profile: hot and bracing note, short-lived and earthy spice, rendered through steam distillation of the berries of the piper negrum bush, which is very popular as a bright accent top note in fragrances. Featured prominently in Piper Negrum by L.Villoresi.

A depiction of Calicut, published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade


Black Pepper, christened as “King of Spices” and “Black gold” is the most important and the most widely used spice in the world, occupying a position that is supreme and unique. Black pepper essential oil is stimulating, warming, comforting and cheerful. The quality of pepper is contributed to by two components. Piperine that contributes the pungency and volatile oil that is responsible for the aroma and flavor.
 


Botanical name: Piper nigrum

Family: Piperaceae
 



COMMON NAMES

Ayurvedic–Maricha (Charaka, Sushruta), Vellaja, Uushana, Suvrrita, Krishna

UnaniFilfil siyaah, Filfil safed

SiddhaMilagu

English–Black Pepper

Parts Used-Fruit

Common method of extraction-Steam distillation of the dried, unripe fruit

Aroma-Pleasant, fresh, spicy and peppery, warm, woody

Note-Middle

Blends well with-Sandalwood, rosemary, citrus, lavender, ginger, clove, lemon, coriander, geranium

HABITAT

Black pepper is a native plant of the Malabar, a region on the Western Coast of South India and originated in the tropical evergreen forests of the Western Ghats of India. The Malabar Coast of India was the center of the pepper trade from time immemorial. The plant is cultivated in the hot and moist parts of India, Sri Lanka and other tropical countries like Malaysia, China and Madagascar. However, Vietnam is the world’s largest producer and exporter of pepper.

HISTORY

Pepper has been highly esteemed in India since time immemorial and was one of the first of the oriental spices to be introduced into Europe, being well known to the ancient Greeks and Romans. From the Malabar Coast of India, pepper was carried by overland routes, as well as by sea. Initially black pepper was taken from the Malabar Coast to the Indonesian islands, and then it spread to various Pacific islands, South East Asian countries and later to tropical Africa and America.

BOTANY

Pepper belongs to family Piperaceae and genus Piper. Apart from black pepper (P. nigrum), the genus also includes economically important species like

P. longum–long pepper
P. betle–betel leaf
P. chaba–Java long pepper
P. cubeba–Cubeb, Tailed pepper

Piper nigrum is a perennial climber, climbing by means of roots which adhere to the support tree. The old stem becomes thick and produces numerous lateral branches. Runner shoots arise from the base of the vine. Leaves are thick, coriaceous, glabrous shape but much variable—commonly ovate, elliptic or elliptic lanceolate.  The size varies from small to large. The base is round, acute or cordate, the tip acuminate, and tge upper surface is dark green to light green, with lower surface being dull green. The pendent spikes form inflorescence and are borne opposite the leaves on the plagiotropic branches. They are 13-15 cm long, bearing 50-150 minute flowers borne in the axils of ovate fleshy bracts. The flowers may be unisexual, with monoecious or dioecious forms, or may be hermaphrodite.
 

ESSENTIAL OIL

Most of the pepper oil in commerce is produced in Western Europe and North America from imported black pepper. The most important types of pepper for processing into essential oil are the Indonesian (Lampong) and Indian (Malabar). The pepper is crushed to a coarse powder and on steam distillation in which ammonia is evolved (in common with, for example, ginger, pimento and cubebs) it yields a colorless to a pale green essential oil with a mild, non-pungent flavor. Pepper oil is used in perfumery and flavorings. Black pepper oil is obtained upon steam distillation of the spice as an almost water-white or pale greenish-grey, mobile liquid, which becomes viscous on aging.

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

Fruits yielded piperine, piperetine and piperidine, amides-peperyline, piperoleins A and B and N-iso-butyl-cicosa-trans-2-trans-4-dienamide. The major constituent piperine (2-5%) showed CNS-depressant, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and hepato-protective properties.

USES


• Dried seeds are used in prescriptions, for cough, rhinitis, consumption, anemia, fainting.

• Black pepper oil is used as blended massage oil, or diluted in a bath to assist with circulation, bruises, rheumatoid arthritis and muscular aches and pains.

• Black pepper is also used as a constituent in a blended cream which is commonly used to provide relief in muscular pain.

• In the winters, black pepper essential oil becomes a great substitute used as warmth-generating aromatherapy constituents.

• Black pepper essential oil is used as an aromatherapy massage oil, to increase the blood circulation.

• The essential oil can make a room feel warmer and cozier when used in an aromatherapy diffuser.


 

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta (cshekhar)

Fragrantica Writer

 

 



 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Pepper

1.5004210526316
Zonda Fueguia 1833
1.5002807017544
Popy Popy Moreni
1.5002105263158
Pimienta Negra Bottega Verde
1.5001403508772
True American Eagle
1.5
Black Jasmine Compagnie de Provence
1.4939713333333
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4446545263158
Hemp Black Pepper Dr. Taffi
1.4445843508772
Hot! Fragrances Brown Ulric de Varens
1.4423157894737
Gentleman Aramis
1.4332741052632
Type B Henrik Vibskov
1.4267249824561
Piper Leather Illuminum
1.4010526315789
Sunshine Edition for Men Paul Smith
1.4000701754386
Bandit Emper
1.4
Poivre Colonial Phaedon
1.3999298245614
Cuba Strass Zebra Cuba Paris
1.3913451403509
Swiss Army Mountain Water Victorinox Swiss Army
1.390851754386
Poivre Piquant L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.3902154561404
The Beat for Men Burberry
1.3834081403509
Declaration Essence Limited Edition Cartier
1.3763333333333
Bruce Willis LR
1.3750701754386
Bespoke Gianni Campagna
1.3621636315789
Velvet Love Dolce&Gabbana
1.3599366140351
Crystal Noir Versace
1.3593950526316
Lady GoGo Smell Bent
1.3423157894737
Rococo for Men Joop!
1.3405157017544
Bang Marc Jacobs
1.3381751052632
Les Saisons Hiver Van Cleef & Arpels
1.3344558070175
Bazar Summer Fragrance New Christian Lacroix
1.3337540526316
Mouse Cologne Roccobarocco
1.3335435263158
Kumquat Alhambra Comptoir Sud Pacifique
1.3334733508772
Taiga DayNa Decker
1.3334031754386
Zagara e Patchouli Dr. Vranjes Firenze
1.3290098070175
Un Jardin Apres la Mousson Hermes
1.3254210526316
Elixir Black Pepper C.O.Bigelow
1.3182451403509
Blue For Men Rasasi
1.3180214035088
Patchouli Empire CB I Hate Perfume
1.3153771929825
Hot Couture White Collection Givenchy
1.3105384561404
Bianco Trussardi
1.3096651403509
Allure Homme Sport Chanel
1.3092054385965
60's Mod Avon
1.3089558245614
Hot Couture Givenchy
1.3081832280702
Iceberg Effusion Man Iceberg
1.3078796315789
Miracle Lancome
1.3055456315789
La Fille de Berlin Serge Lutens
1.3042105263158
Electrify Me Avon
1.3004912280702
Ultraviolet Aurore Borealis Edition Paco Rabanne
1.3004912280702
Marine Jovoy Paris
1.2995451052632
L'Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.2952459473684
Zara for Him Zara
1.2950302807018
City Rush for Him Avon
1.2949936315789
Collection Extraordinaire Cologne Noire Van Cleef & Arpels
1.2942934561404
Hermessence Poivre Samarcande Hermes
1.2857841754386
Axis Black Sense of Space Creations
1.2842722105263
Tommy Bahama Men Tommy Bahama
1.2805614035088
La Raison Pure L`Antichambre
1.2767041052632
Confidentiel Fragonard
1.2739691578947
Ofresia Diptyque
1.2730077017544
No. 48 Roter Mohn Frau Tonis Parfum
1.2729375263158
Quantium for Him Avon
1.2728673508772
Presidente Emper
1.272727
Tantric Notions Coeur d’Esprit Natural Perfumes
1.2671621403509
Sandalwood L`Erbolario
1.2664667894737
Platinum Oriflame
1.2635790526316
N° XIII Poivre Sichuan Mad et Len
1.263508877193
Comme des Garcons Series 1 Leaves: Mint Comme des Garcons
1.2624104736842
Miracle Intense Lancome
1.2611595087719
The One Gentleman Dolce&Gabbana
1.2586006666667
Del Mar Baldessarini Baldessarini
1.2568924385965
Uomini Black O Boticario
1.2533239824561
Eau des Merveilles Hermes
1.2517543859649
Unplugged for Him Avon
1.2515026315789
Lacoste Pour Femme Lacoste
1.2510526315789
Madagascar Spice Pacifica
1.2507719298246
Aqua Colonia Vetyver Florascent
1.2504912280702
Apparition Parfum Revelation Emanuel Ungaro
1.2504912280702
Sander for Men Summer Cologne Jil Sander
1.250350877193
Ozio Cale Fragranze d’Autore
1.250350877193
Opportune Sport Amway
1.2501403508772
Warm Herbal Citrus JoAnne Bassett
1.25
Shozan Black Princesse Marina De Bourbon
1.248044
Echo Davidoff
1.2470598947368
212 Men Ice Carolina Herrera
1.2459370877193
In Blue Armand Basi
1.2437874912281
Opus 1870 Penhaligon`s
1.2434930175439
Custom Alfred Dunhill
1.2430463508772
Sensuous Estée Lauder
1.238904122807
Opium Pour Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.2383195087719
Black Suede Touch Avon
1.2382029824561
Rouge Christian Lacroix
1.2364295964912
Nu Yves Saint Laurent
1.2361056315789
Poivre 23 London Le Labo
1.2350524385965
Max Mara Le Parfum Zeste & Musc Max Mara
1.2350254561404
Albi Laura Tonatto
1.2335058421053
Homme Nicole Farhi
1.2335058421053
Balle de Match Parfums de Nicolaï
1.233454245614
F by Ferragamo Black Salvatore Ferragamo
1.2334356666667
Mexx Black for Him Mexx
1.2331621754386
Innocent Rock Thierry Mugler
1.2320937894737
Christian Lacroix Rouge Avon
1.2319326842105
Oxygene Lanvin
1.2315409298246
Indulgence Oriflame
1.2311900526316
Corsica Voluspa
1.2309795263158
Aurora Farmacia SS. Annunziata
1.230769
Trance Essence Genie in a Bottle C.O.Bigelow
1.2303599824561
Mandarina Duck Rouge Intense Mandarina Duck
1.2300446842105
Jacomo de Jacomo Deep Blue Jacomo
1.2300091052632
Sultane 1001 Nights Jeanne Arthes
1.2297291403509
S8 Oriflame
1.2280248421053
Allure Pour Homme Chanel
1.2266312807018
Sex Pistols Etat Libre d`Orange
1.2264736842105
Incensed Short Fuse Smell Bent
1.2263865789474
Paradise Oriflame
1.2262204736842
Euphoria Men Calvin Klein
1.2261029122807
Superman Al-Rehab
1.2257018596491
Polo Double Black Ralph Lauren
1.2255614035088
Accord Boise Ajmal
1.2252333684211
Givenchy pour Homme Blue Label Givenchy
1.2248886666667
Blue Carnation Roger & Gallet
1.2246664561404
Malaise of the 1970's Etat Libre d`Orange
1.2241113859649
Stella in Two Peony Stella McCartney
1.2231342807018
Unveil Ajmal
1.2230947894737
PG12 Hyperessence Matale Parfumerie Generale
1.2229307192982
Angel Garden Of Stars - Pivoine Angel Thierry Mugler
1.2227834035088
Ted Baker Woman Limited Editon Ted Baker
1.2227834035088
Aventure Galimard
1.2227132280702
Jette Eau de Parfum Jette Joop
1.222572877193
Caine Pascal Schaller
1.2224397368421
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.2221503859649
Treselle Avon
1.2212429649123
He Wood Rocky Mountain Wood DSQUARED²
1.2208276666667
Perles De Lalique Lalique
1.219698122807
Black Comme des Garcons
1.219569
Sens et Bois The Different Company
1.2183212631579
Ti Amo: Iris Hilde Soliani
1.2179494736842
Versace Man Eau Fraiche Versace
1.2176509122807
Preparation Parfumee Andree Putman
1.2174456140351
Loewe 7 Loewe
1.2171282807018
Brut Revolution Faberge
1.216513122807
Declaration d'Un Soir Cartier
1.2154159824561
Belle d`Opium Yves Saint Laurent
1.2151418245614
Lalique White Lalique
1.2147284561404
Eau Parfumee au The Blanc Bvlgari
1.214636877193
Orange Superdry
1.2140238070175
Luna Rossa Extreme Prada
1.2140157368421
MAC Creations Hue: Africanimal M∙A∙C
1.2125802982456
Blue Santal Comme des Garcons
1.2115009649123
Axe Instinct Axe
1.2110874035088
Nouf Swiss Arabian
1.2108458596491
Moonshine A Gentleman's Cologne Moonshine
1.2107639824561
Chic For Men Carolina Herrera

Popular brands and perfumes: