Pepper

lat. Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)

Group: Spices

Pepper Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)
Pepper Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)
Pepper Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)
Odor profile: hot and bracing note, short-lived and earthy spice, rendered through steam distillation of the berries of the piper negrum bush, which is very popular as a bright accent top note in fragrances. Featured prominently in Piper Negrum by L.Villoresi.

A depiction of Calicut, published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade


Black Pepper, christened as “King of Spices” and “Black gold” is the most important and the most widely used spice in the world, occupying a position that is supreme and unique. Black pepper essential oil is stimulating, warming, comforting and cheerful. The quality of pepper is contributed to by two components. Piperine that contributes the pungency and volatile oil that is responsible for the aroma and flavor.
 


Botanical name: Piper nigrum

Family: Piperaceae
 



COMMON NAMES

Ayurvedic–Maricha (Charaka, Sushruta), Vellaja, Uushana, Suvrrita, Krishna

UnaniFilfil siyaah, Filfil safed

SiddhaMilagu

English–Black Pepper

Parts Used-Fruit

Common method of extraction-Steam distillation of the dried, unripe fruit

Aroma-Pleasant, fresh, spicy and peppery, warm, woody

Note-Middle

Blends well with-Sandalwood, rosemary, citrus, lavender, ginger, clove, lemon, coriander, geranium

HABITAT

Black pepper is a native plant of the Malabar, a region on the Western Coast of South India and originated in the tropical evergreen forests of the Western Ghats of India. The Malabar Coast of India was the center of the pepper trade from time immemorial. The plant is cultivated in the hot and moist parts of India, Sri Lanka and other tropical countries like Malaysia, China and Madagascar. However, Vietnam is the world’s largest producer and exporter of pepper.

HISTORY

Pepper has been highly esteemed in India since time immemorial and was one of the first of the oriental spices to be introduced into Europe, being well known to the ancient Greeks and Romans. From the Malabar Coast of India, pepper was carried by overland routes, as well as by sea. Initially black pepper was taken from the Malabar Coast to the Indonesian islands, and then it spread to various Pacific islands, South East Asian countries and later to tropical Africa and America.

BOTANY

Pepper belongs to family Piperaceae and genus Piper. Apart from black pepper (P. nigrum), the genus also includes economically important species like

P. longum–long pepper
P. betle–betel leaf
P. chaba–Java long pepper
P. cubeba–Cubeb, Tailed pepper

Piper nigrum is a perennial climber, climbing by means of roots which adhere to the support tree. The old stem becomes thick and produces numerous lateral branches. Runner shoots arise from the base of the vine. Leaves are thick, coriaceous, glabrous shape but much variable—commonly ovate, elliptic or elliptic lanceolate.  The size varies from small to large. The base is round, acute or cordate, the tip acuminate, and tge upper surface is dark green to light green, with lower surface being dull green. The pendent spikes form inflorescence and are borne opposite the leaves on the plagiotropic branches. They are 13-15 cm long, bearing 50-150 minute flowers borne in the axils of ovate fleshy bracts. The flowers may be unisexual, with monoecious or dioecious forms, or may be hermaphrodite.
 

ESSENTIAL OIL

Most of the pepper oil in commerce is produced in Western Europe and North America from imported black pepper. The most important types of pepper for processing into essential oil are the Indonesian (Lampong) and Indian (Malabar). The pepper is crushed to a coarse powder and on steam distillation in which ammonia is evolved (in common with, for example, ginger, pimento and cubebs) it yields a colorless to a pale green essential oil with a mild, non-pungent flavor. Pepper oil is used in perfumery and flavorings. Black pepper oil is obtained upon steam distillation of the spice as an almost water-white or pale greenish-grey, mobile liquid, which becomes viscous on aging.

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

Fruits yielded piperine, piperetine and piperidine, amides-peperyline, piperoleins A and B and N-iso-butyl-cicosa-trans-2-trans-4-dienamide. The major constituent piperine (2-5%) showed CNS-depressant, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and hepato-protective properties.

USES


• Dried seeds are used in prescriptions, for cough, rhinitis, consumption, anemia, fainting.

• Black pepper oil is used as blended massage oil, or diluted in a bath to assist with circulation, bruises, rheumatoid arthritis and muscular aches and pains.

• Black pepper is also used as a constituent in a blended cream which is commonly used to provide relief in muscular pain.

• In the winters, black pepper essential oil becomes a great substitute used as warmth-generating aromatherapy constituents.

• Black pepper essential oil is used as an aromatherapy massage oil, to increase the blood circulation.

• The essential oil can make a room feel warmer and cozier when used in an aromatherapy diffuser.


 

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta (cshekhar)

Fragrantica Writer

 

 



 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Pepper

1.5004356349379
Zonda Fueguia 1833
1.5002904232919
Popy Popy Moreni
1.500217817469
Pimienta Negra Bottega Verde
1.500072605823
Classic Bath and Body Works
1.5
Black Jasmine Compagnie de Provence
1.4934573333333
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.444661817469
Hemp Black Pepper Dr. Taffi
1.444589211646
Hot! Fragrances Brown Ulric de Varens
1.4423959921586
Gentleman Aramis
1.4333032698758
Type B Henrik Vibskov
1.4054892989908
Piper Leather Illuminum
1.4010890873448
Sunshine Edition for Men Paul Smith
1.400072605823
Bandit Emper
1.399927394177
Cuba Strass Zebra Cuba Paris
1.393295678574
The Beat for Men Burberry
1.3875877043491
Poivre Piquant L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.3857040873448
La Martina Hombre La Martina
1.3834932038045
Declaration Essence Limited Edition Cartier
1.3817785979816
Swiss Army Mountain Water Victorinox Swiss Army
1.3763795106368
Bruce Willis LR
1.375145211646
Bespoke Gianni Campagna
1.3620548756988
Velvet Love Dolce&Gabbana
1.3594096349379
Lady GoGo Smell Bent
1.3555996492413
Crystal Noir Versace
1.3534221959631
Les Saisons Hiver Van Cleef & Arpels
1.3501472261671
Bang Marc Jacobs
1.3423959921586
Rococo for Men Joop!
1.3344946931678
Bazar Summer Fragrance New Christian Lacroix
1.3337686349379
Mouse Cologne Roccobarocco
1.333550817469
Kumquat Alhambra Comptoir Sud Pacifique
1.333478211646
Taiga DayNa Decker
1.333405605823
Zagara e Patchouli Dr. Vranjes Firenze
1.333333
Poivre Colonial Phaedon
1.3301111611849
Un Jardin Apres la Mousson Hermes
1.3253630291149
Elixir Black Pepper C.O.Bigelow
1.3183302038045
Blue For Men Rasasi
1.3180408465839
Patchouli Empire CB I Hate Perfume
1.3154042329195
Hot Couture White Collection Givenchy
1.3129849830102
Miracle Lancome
1.3111046928774
Allure Homme Sport Chanel
1.310897530676
Hot Couture Givenchy
1.3107836192551
Bianco Trussardi
1.3094919182458
60's Mod Avon
1.3082002407609
Iceberg Effusion Man Iceberg
1.305637550933
Hermessence Poivre Samarcande Hermes
1.3035655901401
Collection Extraordinaire Cologne Noire Van Cleef & Arpels
1.3026039238365
Tommy Bahama Men Tommy Bahama
1.3011753188848
L'Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.3007986640529
City Rush for Him Avon
1.3005082407609
Ultraviolet Aurore Borealis Edition Paco Rabanne
1.3004356349379
Marine Jovoy Paris
1.2999924299717
La Fille de Berlin Serge Lutens
1.2952972911494
Zara for Him Zara
1.285786605823
Axis Black Sense of Space Creations
1.2828857278734
Ofresia Diptyque
1.2805808465839
La Raison Pure L`Antichambre
1.2767332698758
Confidentiel Fragonard
1.272944817469
Quantium for Him Avon
1.272872211646
No. 48 Roter Mohn Frau Tonis Parfum
1.272727
Tantric Notions Coeur d’Esprit Natural Perfumes
1.272224479271
Del Mar Baldessarini Baldessarini
1.2665469921586
Platinum Oriflame
1.2640659260873
Miracle Intense Lancome
1.2635210291149
Comme des Garcons Series 1 Leaves: Mint Comme des Garcons
1.2624875307486
The One Gentleman Dolce&Gabbana
1.2619383863356
Uomini Black O Boticario
1.2615097805126
Sandalwood L`Erbolario
1.2613541377332
Electrify Me Avon
1.2584049304436
Lacoste Pour Femme Lacoste
1.2518151455747
Unplugged for Him Avon
1.2516391196544
Eau des Merveilles Hermes
1.2510890873448
Madagascar Spice Pacifica
1.2507260582299
Aqua Colonia Vetyver Florascent
1.2505082407609
Sander for Men Summer Cologne Jil Sander
1.2503630291149
Apparition Parfum Revelation Emanuel Ungaro
1.2503630291149
Ozio Cale Fragranze d’Autore
1.2503630291149
Opportune Sport Amway
1.250145211646
Warm Herbal Citrus JoAnne Bassett
1.25
Shozan Black Princesse Marina De Bourbon
1.2491037357148
Custom Alfred Dunhill
1.2471692620344
212 Men Ice Carolina Herrera
1.2460075688666
In Blue Armand Basi
1.2447250793582
Sensuous Estée Lauder
1.2428283045814
Poivre 23 London Le Labo
1.2423786549771
Opium Pour Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.2407986640529
Unveil Ajmal
1.239483733464
Echo Davidoff
1.2386451802803
Black Suede Touch Avon
1.238382830901
Rouge Christian Lacroix
1.2382836505482
Nu Yves Saint Laurent
1.2374721746896
Karmala Avon
1.2357296349379
Accord Boise Ajmal
1.2356531097074
F by Ferragamo Black Salvatore Ferragamo
1.2355844232919
Al Shariga Al-Rehab
1.2352003863356
Max Mara Le Parfum Zeste & Musc Max Mara
1.2350594815218
Albi Laura Tonatto
1.2336006270965
Homme Nicole Farhi
1.2335280212735
Mexx Black for Him Mexx
1.2333828096275
Balle de Match Parfums de Nicolaï
1.2332238521745
Innocent Rock Thierry Mugler
1.2315676640529
Indulgence Oriflame
1.2313654848617
Opus 1870 Penhaligon`s
1.2312046349379
Corsica Voluspa
1.230986817469
Aurora Farmacia SS. Annunziata
1.230769
Trance Essence Genie in a Bottle C.O.Bigelow
1.2304739048138
Mandarina Duck Rouge Intense Mandarina Duck
1.2300957222827
Jacomo de Jacomo Deep Blue Jacomo
1.2298930582299
Sultane 1001 Nights Jeanne Arthes
1.2298142038045
S8 Oriflame
1.2291385440354
Allure Pour Homme Chanel
1.2283620873448
Poivre DSH Perfumes
1.2283472038045
Impeccable Aramis
1.2280419820664
Christian Lacroix Rouge Avon
1.2269007412328
He Wood Rocky Mountain Wood DSQUARED²
1.2267339652218
Euphoria Men Calvin Klein
1.2266561959631
Sex Pistols Etat Libre d`Orange
1.2264020481377
Paradise Oriflame
1.2256413213534
Givenchy pour Homme Blue Label Givenchy
1.2251925598635
Polo Double Black Ralph Lauren
1.224930678574
Oxygene Lanvin
1.2249084154505
Blue Carnation Roger & Gallet
1.2247730873448
Malaise of the 1970's Etat Libre d`Orange
1.2240154064474
Perles De Lalique Lalique
1.2236102519422
Angel Garden Of Stars - Pivoine Angel Thierry Mugler
1.2229476573005
Stella in Two Peony Stella McCartney
1.2229142732157
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.2228028465839
Ted Baker Woman Limited Editon Ted Baker
1.2227302407609
Jette Eau de Parfum Jette Joop
1.2225850291149
Caine Pascal Schaller
1.2225850291149
Aventure Galimard
1.2209021086183
Black Comme des Garcons
1.2201969137443
Treselle Avon
1.2188058195019
Versace Man Eau Fraiche Versace
1.218659585566
Belle d`Opium Yves Saint Laurent
1.2183941746896
Ti Amo: Iris Hilde Soliani
1.2177189630436
Preparation Parfumee Andree Putman
1.2171598756988
Brut Revolution Faberge
1.217064381834
Loewe 7 Loewe
1.2169651948014
Declaration d'Un Soir Cartier
1.2164641746896
Soie Rouge Avon
1.2162962059827
Eau Parfumee au The Blanc Bvlgari
1.2155405027953
Eikon Oriflame
1.2146490291149
Orange Superdry
1.2140813572206
MAC Creations Hue: Africanimal M∙A∙C
1.2126400100196
Lalique White Lalique
1.212164259711
Chic For Men Carolina Herrera
1.2115443258549
Dream Angels Halo Victoria`s Secret
1.2114450660713
Axe Instinct Axe
1.2111068465839
Nouf Swiss Arabian
1.2108993281057
Moonshine A Gentleman's Cologne Moonshine

Popular brands and perfumes: