Pepper

lat. Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)

Group: Spices

Pepper Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)
Pepper Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)
Pepper Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)
Odor profile: hot and bracing note, short-lived and earthy spice, rendered through steam distillation of the berries of the piper negrum bush, which is very popular as a bright accent top note in fragrances. Featured prominently in Piper Negrum by L.Villoresi.

A depiction of Calicut, published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade


Black Pepper, christened as “King of Spices” and “Black gold” is the most important and the most widely used spice in the world, occupying a position that is supreme and unique. Black pepper essential oil is stimulating, warming, comforting and cheerful. The quality of pepper is contributed to by two components. Piperine that contributes the pungency and volatile oil that is responsible for the aroma and flavor.
 


Botanical name: Piper nigrum

Family: Piperaceae
 



COMMON NAMES

Ayurvedic–Maricha (Charaka, Sushruta), Vellaja, Uushana, Suvrrita, Krishna

UnaniFilfil siyaah, Filfil safed

SiddhaMilagu

English–Black Pepper

Parts Used-Fruit

Common method of extraction-Steam distillation of the dried, unripe fruit

Aroma-Pleasant, fresh, spicy and peppery, warm, woody

Note-Middle

Blends well with-Sandalwood, rosemary, citrus, lavender, ginger, clove, lemon, coriander, geranium

HABITAT

Black pepper is a native plant of the Malabar, a region on the Western Coast of South India and originated in the tropical evergreen forests of the Western Ghats of India. The Malabar Coast of India was the center of the pepper trade from time immemorial. The plant is cultivated in the hot and moist parts of India, Sri Lanka and other tropical countries like Malaysia, China and Madagascar. However, Vietnam is the world’s largest producer and exporter of pepper.

HISTORY

Pepper has been highly esteemed in India since time immemorial and was one of the first of the oriental spices to be introduced into Europe, being well known to the ancient Greeks and Romans. From the Malabar Coast of India, pepper was carried by overland routes, as well as by sea. Initially black pepper was taken from the Malabar Coast to the Indonesian islands, and then it spread to various Pacific islands, South East Asian countries and later to tropical Africa and America.

BOTANY

Pepper belongs to family Piperaceae and genus Piper. Apart from black pepper (P. nigrum), the genus also includes economically important species like

P. longum–long pepper
P. betle–betel leaf
P. chaba–Java long pepper
P. cubeba–Cubeb, Tailed pepper

Piper nigrum is a perennial climber, climbing by means of roots which adhere to the support tree. The old stem becomes thick and produces numerous lateral branches. Runner shoots arise from the base of the vine. Leaves are thick, coriaceous, glabrous shape but much variable—commonly ovate, elliptic or elliptic lanceolate.  The size varies from small to large. The base is round, acute or cordate, the tip acuminate, and tge upper surface is dark green to light green, with lower surface being dull green. The pendent spikes form inflorescence and are borne opposite the leaves on the plagiotropic branches. They are 13-15 cm long, bearing 50-150 minute flowers borne in the axils of ovate fleshy bracts. The flowers may be unisexual, with monoecious or dioecious forms, or may be hermaphrodite.
 

ESSENTIAL OIL

Most of the pepper oil in commerce is produced in Western Europe and North America from imported black pepper. The most important types of pepper for processing into essential oil are the Indonesian (Lampong) and Indian (Malabar). The pepper is crushed to a coarse powder and on steam distillation in which ammonia is evolved (in common with, for example, ginger, pimento and cubebs) it yields a colorless to a pale green essential oil with a mild, non-pungent flavor. Pepper oil is used in perfumery and flavorings. Black pepper oil is obtained upon steam distillation of the spice as an almost water-white or pale greenish-grey, mobile liquid, which becomes viscous on aging.

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

Fruits yielded piperine, piperetine and piperidine, amides-peperyline, piperoleins A and B and N-iso-butyl-cicosa-trans-2-trans-4-dienamide. The major constituent piperine (2-5%) showed CNS-depressant, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and hepato-protective properties.

USES


• Dried seeds are used in prescriptions, for cough, rhinitis, consumption, anemia, fainting.

• Black pepper oil is used as blended massage oil, or diluted in a bath to assist with circulation, bruises, rheumatoid arthritis and muscular aches and pains.

• Black pepper is also used as a constituent in a blended cream which is commonly used to provide relief in muscular pain.

• In the winters, black pepper essential oil becomes a great substitute used as warmth-generating aromatherapy constituents.

• Black pepper essential oil is used as an aromatherapy massage oil, to increase the blood circulation.

• The essential oil can make a room feel warmer and cozier when used in an aromatherapy diffuser.


 

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta (cshekhar)

Fragrantica Writer

 

 



 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Pepper

1.500312329195
Popy Popy Moreni
1.5002342468962
Pimienta Negra Bottega Verde
1.5001561645975
Hot! Fragrances Brown Ulric de Varens
1.5000780822987
Classic Bath and Body Works
1.5
Black Jasmine Compagnie de Provence
1.4927153333333
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4445220822987
Hemp Black Pepper Dr. Taffi
1.4333689875849
Type B Henrik Vibskov
1.4309134689623
Gentleman Aramis
1.4010150698837
Sunshine Edition for Men Paul Smith
1.4009580468494
The Beat for Men Burberry
1.4003904114937
Coach Leatherware No. 02 Coach
1.4000780822987
Bandit Emper
1.3999219177013
Cuba Strass Zebra Cuba Paris
1.387296953541
Poivre Piquant L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.3857081521824
La Martina Hombre La Martina
1.3834506335598
Declaration Essence Limited Edition Cartier
1.3821232344811
Piper Leather Illuminum
1.3816524689623
Swiss Army Mountain Water Victorinox Swiss Army
1.3766397282736
Bruce Willis LR
1.3751561645975
Bespoke Gianni Campagna
1.3605879070821
Bang Marc Jacobs
1.3595205760912
Lady GoGo Smell Bent
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Crystal Noir Versace
1.3424986335598
Rococo for Men Joop!
1.3380960202233
Les Saisons Hiver Van Cleef & Arpels
1.3345823167799
Bazar Summer Fragrance New Christian Lacroix
1.3338014937925
Mouse Cologne Roccobarocco
1.3337234114937
Elixir Black Pepper C.O.Bigelow
1.3335672468962
Kumquat Alhambra Comptoir Sud Pacifique
1.3334891645975
Taiga DayNa Decker
1.3334110822987
Zagara e Patchouli Dr. Vranjes Firenze
1.333333
Aventure Galimard
1.3332549177013
Pulpería Fueguia 1833
1.3221078588272
Hermessence Poivre Samarcande Hermes
1.3220904399157
Un Jardin Apres la Mousson Hermes
1.3204059827438
Miracle Lancome
1.3181314689623
Blue For Men Rasasi
1.3180065760912
Patchouli Empire CB I Hate Perfume
1.3156232919497
Hot Couture White Collection Givenchy
1.3126351111111
Hot Couture Givenchy
1.3110998432107
Bianco Trussardi
1.3109727955025
Allure Homme Sport Chanel
1.3084728229874
Aqua Colonia Vetyver Florascent
1.3082385760912
Iceberg Effusion Man Iceberg
1.3067931599906
60's Mod Avon
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Or Black 2014 Pascal Morabito
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Collection Extraordinaire Cologne Noire Van Cleef & Arpels
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Velvet Love Dolce&Gabbana
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Tommy Bahama Men Tommy Bahama
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City Rush for Him Avon
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Ultraviolet Aurore Borealis Edition Paco Rabanne
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Marine Jovoy Paris
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La Fille de Berlin Serge Lutens
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L'Homme Yves Saint Laurent
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Ofresia Diptyque
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Perry Black for Him Perry Ellis
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Thallium Sport (Limited Edition) Paris Bleu
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Axis Black Sense of Space Creations
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Zara for Him Zara
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La Raison Pure L`Antichambre
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The One Gentleman Dolce&Gabbana
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Jitterbug for Men DSH Perfumes
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Alchemy Aftelier
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No. 48 Roter Mohn Frau Tonis Parfum
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Tantric Notions Coeur d’Esprit Natural Perfumes
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Uomini Black O Boticario
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Del Mar Baldessarini Baldessarini
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Platinum Oriflame
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Incarnation Ayala Moriel
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Miracle Intense Lancome
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Confidentiel Fragonard
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Comme des Garcons Series 1 Leaves: Mint Comme des Garcons
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Electrify Me Avon
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Sandalwood L`Erbolario
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Lacoste Pour Femme Lacoste
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212 Men Ice Carolina Herrera
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Eau des Merveilles Hermes
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Unplugged for Him Avon
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Madagascar Spice Pacifica
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Sander for Men Summer Cologne Jil Sander
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Opportune Sport Amway
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Apparition Parfum Revelation Emanuel Ungaro
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Ozio Cale Fragranze d’Autore
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Warm Herbal Citrus JoAnne Bassett
1.25
Sensuelle Glamour Arno Sorel
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Shozan Black Princesse Marina De Bourbon
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Sensuous Estée Lauder
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In Blue Armand Basi
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Custom Alfred Dunhill
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Poivre 23 London Le Labo
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F by Ferragamo Black Salvatore Ferragamo
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Unveil Ajmal
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Opium Pour Homme Yves Saint Laurent
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Echo Davidoff
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Innocent Rock Thierry Mugler
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Black Suede Touch Avon
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Rouge Christian Lacroix
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Sex Pistols Etat Libre d`Orange
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Nu Yves Saint Laurent
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MaxMara Le Parfum Zest & Musc Max Mara
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Blue Carnation Roger & Gallet
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Allure Pour Homme Chanel
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Christian Lacroix Rouge Avon
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Poivre DSH Perfumes
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Polo Double Black Ralph Lauren
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Impeccable Aramis
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Givenchy pour Homme Blue Label Givenchy
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Paradise Oriflame
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Giordani Man Oriflame
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Opus 1870 Penhaligon`s
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He Wood Rocky Mountain Wood DSQUARED²
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Loewe 7 Loewe
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Perles De Lalique Lalique
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Ted Baker Woman Limited Editon Ted Baker
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Jette Eau de Parfum Jette Joop
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Caine Pascal Schaller
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Axe Instinct Axe
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No. 26 Le Cherche Midi
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Stella in Two Peony Stella McCartney
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Eau Parfumee au The Blanc Bvlgari
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Angel Garden Of Stars - Pivoine Angel Thierry Mugler
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Oxygene Lanvin
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Belle d`Opium Yves Saint Laurent
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Euphoria Men Calvin Klein
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Ti Amo: Iris Hilde Soliani
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Infusion de Vetiver Prada
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Black Comme des Garcons
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Preparation Parfumee Andree Putman
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Brut Revolution Faberge
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Versace Man Eau Fraiche Versace
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Soie Rouge Avon
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