Sandalwood

lat. Santalum Album

Group: WOODS AND MOSSES

Sandalwood Santalum Album
Sandalwood Santalum Album
Sandalwood Santalum Album
Odor profile: The classic oriental woody note, milky, soft, sturdy, rich, with a green top note and a satisfying lingering scent. The best quality used to be the Mysore sandalwood variety from India, nowadays greatly reduced to the point of extinction from perfumery due to shortage of the natural material (the species is protected from harvesting because it's an endangered species). Australian sandalwood and New Caledonian sandalwood are different species with a harsher odor profile.

Sandalwood oil gives a sweet and woody fragrance and is one of the most valuable ingredients. Sandalwood is obtained from the trees of the genus Santalum. The wood is heavy and yellow in color, as well as fine-grained. It retains its fragrance for a long time. Sandalwood has been valued for its fragrance, carving, medical and religious qualities. It is used in preparing all types of perfume compositions especially Indian attars like Hina, Gulab, Kewda and Jesmine in which the natural essential oils from floral distillation are absorbed in sandalwood oil.

Common name:
Sandalwood, Indian sandalwood, Fragrant sandalwood, White sandalwood, Chandan, Sandal

Botanical name: Santalum album

Family: Santalaceae (Sandalwood family)

Origin: India, Indonesia, Ceylon, Australia, Pacific Islands, etc. The finest quality comes from the forests of India, mostly from Karnataka, Mysore, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh.

Plant Part: Wood

Extraction Method: Steam

Colour: Golden Orange with brown tones

Consistency: Medium to Viscous

Note: Base

Aroma Strength: Medium
 


HISTORY

The documented use of Sandalwood goes back 4000 years to India, Egypt, Greece and Rome. Many temples and structures were built from Sandalwood. In Egypt, people used it in embalming.


MYTH

In India, people believed that termites never attack sandalwood. For that reason, they considered it a symbol of vitality. Sandalwood has been a part of the religious and spiritual traditions of India since prehistory and has been effectively used as a traditional medicine from ancient times.

HABITAT and DISTRIBUTION

The sandalwood tree is indigenous to mountain districts of south India and the Malayan Archipelago. Plant biologists describe that tree as indigenous to southeast Asia and having been introduced into India by traders. About 90% of the world's production of sandalwood oil is from India.
 

BOTANY

Sandalwood is a small evergreen tree growing to 18 m in height and 2.4 m in girth, with slender drooping branches. The tree reaches its full maturity in 60 to 80 years, which is when the center of the slender trunk (the heartwood) has achieved its greatest oil content.

The sapwood is white and odorless while the heartwood is yellowish brown and strongly scented. Leaves are 3.5 to 4 cm in length, elliptic, lanceolate glabrous and petiolate; inflorescence terminal or axillary, paniculate cyme; flowers are bisexual, many, and brownish purple in color; perianth campanulate; there are 4 stamens, exerted, alternating with 4 rounded obtuse scales. The sandal tree grows almost exclusively in the forests of Karnataka, followed by Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh (India), Timor Islands of Indonesia etc. The sandalwood tree is not felled, but is instead uprooted in the rainy season, when the roots are richer in the precious essential oil. The best quality oil comes from the Indian province of Mysore and Tamil Nadu.

BLENDS WELL WITH

Sandalwood blends well with most oils. The list includes Clove Bud, Lavender, Geranium, Patchouli, Jasmine, Benzoin, Bergamot, Clary Sage, Coriander, Cypress, Fennel, Frankincense, Galbanum, Myrrh, Palmarosa, Pepper Black and Peppermint.

AROMATIC DESCRIPTION

Sandalwood has a rich, balsamic, sweet fragrance with delicate wood notes. The oil has a woody, exotic smell, subtle and lingering and the color is pale yellow to pale gold.

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

Sesquiterpenes; Sesquiterpenols; Sesquiterpenals; (includes 80 to 90% terpeniod alcohols including A and B-santalols [67%], which is a mixture of two primary sesquiterpenic alcohols), santalic and teresantalic acid, aldehyde, pterocarpin and hydrocarbons, isovaleric aldehyde, santene, santenone.

EXTRATION and UTILISATION

Sandalwood oil is obtained using steam distillation of powdered wood soaked in water for about 48 hours. Distillation is carried out at a steam pressure of 1.4-2.8 kg/cm2 for 48-75 hours. The oil content is about 10% in roots and 1.5-2% in chips which have a mixture of heartwood and sapwood.

USAGE

Fragrance

The fragrance of sandalwood has relaxing properties and also reduces stress and promotes restful sleep. It is reputed to be an aphrodisiac. Sandalwood oil provides perfumes with a striking woody base note. Sandalwood smells not unlike other wood scents, except it has a bright and fresh edge with few natural analogues. When used in
smaller proportions in a perfume, it is an excellent fixative to enhance the other fragrances. The oil from sandalwood is widely used in the cosmetic industry and is expensive.

Aromatherapy Use

Sandalwood is a part of traditional medical systems such as Chinese medicine and the Indian healing science known as Ayurveda. Sandalwood is commonly used for cosmetics and skin care, being useful for dry, cracked and chapped skin, rashes and acne. It is suitable for all skin types and is non-toxic.

Spiritual Use

Sandalwood is used in various ways in the spiritual traditions of the India. It is considered beneficial for meditation and for calming and focusing the human mind. It is used as incense in temples or on personal altars to remind us of the fragrant realms of the heavens. Deities of various kinds are fashioned from Sandalwood, then installed in a shrine or temple or placed upon the home altar. When Sandalwood was more abundant, the wood was used to construct parts of temples. Drops of sandalwood oils can be applied to the forehead, the temples or rubbed between the eyebrows before beginning rituals. In this way, it helps to set the stage and prepare the mind to begin its inward journey. This treatment also used for meditation.

Other uses

Sandalwood is highly prized as a wood for carving and is also used for making souvenirs and other items requiring fine workmanship. In India, the sapwood of sandal is used for wood turning, particularly toy-making; the wood comes mainly from trimmings and immature trees killed by disease. Sawdust from heartwood prepared for distillation is valuable enough to be collected and sold for use as incense for religious purposes, as well as for scenting clothes and cupboards.

Images: album cover of sandalwood by Clinton Steeds,  sandalwood forest by madpai, Sandalwood Church by jeffk
 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Sandalwood Perfumes

1.509633911368
Sacred Wood By Kilian
1.5043352601156
Smuggler`s Soul Lush
1.5014450867052
Sandal Amouage
1.5012699246803
En Tendre House of Matriarch
1.5012699246803
Sandalwood Caswell Massey
1.5012699246803
Musk al Madinah Al-Rehab
1.5009196006306
Sandalwood Demeter Fragrance
1.5008758101244
Tricorn Caswell Massey
1.5008320196181
La Joven Noche Fueguia 1833
1.5007006480995
Sandalo Zara
1.5006130670871
Sexy Sparkle Sweet Magnolia Victoria`s Secret
1.5006130670871
King Of Sandal Nabeel
1.5006130670871
Sandalo Byblos
1.5004816955684
Water of Arabia Dua Fragrances
1.5004816955684
Marbert Homme Marbert
1.5004816955684
Mysore Sandalwood DSH Perfumes
1.500394114556
Undeniable by Billy Dee Williams Avon
1.5003065335435
Onyx Paul Sebastian
1.5003065335435
Sandalwood Flowers Abdul Samad Al Qurashi
1.5003065335435
Proraso Red After Shave Proraso
1.5003065335435
Le Roi Santal Comptoir Sud Pacifique
1.5002627430373
Van Heusen Van Heusen
1.5002627430373
Cymbelline The Cotswold Perfumery
1.5002627430373
Endurance Women Ted Baker
1.5002627430373
Selene Fresh Line
1.5002189525311
Hayden Hollister
1.5002189525311
Sandalia Swiss Arabian
1.5001751620249
Sandal Al-Rehab
1.5001751620249
Rouge Santal Korloff Paris
1.5001751620249
Sandalo Misore I Profumi di Firenze
1.5001751620249
Santal du Pacifique Extrait Perris Monte Carlo
1.5001751620249
Dragon's Claw Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5001313715187
Never Say Never Smell Bent
1.5001313715187
Imperial Asiatic Musk Abdul Karim Al Faransi
1.5001313715187
Sandalwood Avon
1.5001313715187
No. XII Santalum Mad et Len
1.5001313715187
Sandalwood Spirit Abdul Samad Al Qurashi
1.5000875810124
Dragon's Bone Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000875810124
Magus Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000875810124
Bailando Harvey Prince
1.5000875810124
Peau D'Un Homme FL Parfums
1.5000875810124
Goddess Fleur de Sante
1.5000875810124
Santal du Pacifique Perris Monte Carlo
1.5000875810124
I'm Free Gousse de Vanille X Trem Laurence Dumont
1.5000875810124
Le Premier Parfum Coolife
1.5000875810124
Shackleford Fulton & Roark
1.5000875810124
Fabi Per Lui Fabi
1.5000875810124
Aseer Majid Muzaffar Iterji
1.5000875810124
Flamboyant Aquaflor Firenze
1.5000437905062
Sandalwood Extract Saint Charles Shave
1.5000437905062
Tennis L`acqua Di Fiori
1.5000437905062
Sandalwood The Merchant of Venice
1.5000437905062
Sumu Man Nabeel
1.5000437905062
Promesa de Amor Myrurgia
1.5000437905062
Pure Oil of Sandalwood Carolina Herrera
1.5
Intoxication d`Amour D`Orsay
1.5
Santal L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5
Freudian Wood WienerBlut
1.5
Indiiskiy Sandal Rassvet
1.5
Encens YanFroloff Perfumer
1.5
Lucky Bay Sabe Masson
1.5
Black Sand Finn & Co.
1.5
Love Potion Dominican Perfumes
1.5
Al Fustan Silver Afnan Perfumes
1.5
Woods L`acqua Di Fiori
1.5
Santal Blanc West Third Brand
1.5
Sandlewood Bourbon French Parfums
1.5
Maderas Coqui Coqui
1.5
After 9 Gold Emper
1.4999562094938
Lorelei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4999562094938
A Bathing Ape A Bathing Ape
1.4999562094938
Mure et Orange Francois Deli
1.4999124189876
01 Sweet Wood Desire Body Conjure
1.4999124189876
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4999124189876
Tin House Fairy Dance Anna Sui
1.4998686284813
Konvict Homme Akon
1.4953356784025
Nirvana Black Elizabeth and James
1.4919286480995
White Amber Berkeley Square
1.4894766815554
Santal Majuscule Serge Lutens
1.4829779525311
Diva Pure Natural Diva
1.4784361620249
Yuzzu Meshaz Natural Perfumes
1.4757006480995
Warm Sand Matthew Williamson
1.4703002221054
Dark Aoud Montale
1.4616693715187
Diverti Hové Parfumeur, Ltd.
1.4557201734104
Zizanie Fragonard
1.4547201620249
Touch Sport Fred Hayman
1.4546763715187
Mix 10 Platinum J
1.4546325810124
Le Petit Parfum Khaya DayNa Decker
1.445451181643
Sandalwood Eau de Toilette The Art Of Shaving
1.444444
A & F 1892 Red Abercrombie & Fitch
1.4288775335435
Barber Cologne Elixir Red C.O.Bigelow
1.4287899525311
Sandal Rose Swiss Arabian
1.4286147905062
Zara Av. Bartomeu Vicent Ramon 12-16 Ibiza Zara
1.428571
Santal Majuscule Edition Numérotée Serge Lutens
1.428571
Jasmin d`Orange Lanoe
1.428571
Dumann Feral Nouveau Paris Perfume
1.428571
Memoire du Voyage Nostalgia Collection
1.4285272094938
Aqua Lumiere Novaya Zarya
1.4247674860746
Santal Basmati Affinessence
1.4213183333333
Hypnotic Poison Christian Dior
1.4211843715187
L`eau de Mumtaz-i Mahal Maison Nicolas de Barry
1.4169297430373
Goddess of Dreams CJ Scents
1.416667
Amber Claudia Scattolini
1.4153892354178
Waikiki Pikake Pacifica
1.412159114556
Sandal Rose Al-Rehab
1.4104348493607
Mesmerize Black for Her Avon
1.4096602765808
Cashmere Haze H&M
1.4094143911368
Immortelle Tribal Givenchy
1.4092661620249
Heliotrope & Santal Accord Parfait
1.409091
Mon Roi Faberlic
1.4076028493607
Santalum Profumum Roma
1.4046555727798
Dancing Lady Hypnotic Night Oriflame
1.4009633911368
Chakra 4 Fulfillment Aveda
1.4007444386057
Eau Jeune Double Je Eau Jeune
1.400394114556
Cuba Magnum Red Cuba Paris
1.4002627430373
Toi Mon Demon Des Filles a la Vanille
1.4002627430373
One Ormonde Jayne
1.4002189525311
Malayan Coco Voluspa
1.4001751620249
Dusk Project D by Dannii and Tabitha
1.4000875810124
Patchoulissimo Les Ecuadors
1.4000437905062
Monforte 2 Mazzolari
1.4000437905062
Fumee Toxique Francois Deli
1.4000437905062
Plenium Cindy C.
1.4
Vin Nouveau CIEL Parfum
1.4
Fleur d'Aspiration La Fleur by Livvy
1.4
Sandalo Malesia I Profumi di Firenze
1.4
Shewolf BillyXClub
1.4
Patchouli Shadow Teufels Kuche
1.3989859164477
Silk Mandarin Santal Victoria`s Secret
1.3925236120161
Liquid Gold Euphoria Men Calvin Klein
1.3896334386057
Today Tomorrow Always Absolute Avon
1.3777588018917
Curve Connect for Men Liz Claiborne
1.376401296199
Agua de Sandalo Adolfo Dominguez
1.3753065335435
Green Velvet The Rising Phoenix Perfumery
1.3752627430373
Lucky Bay Sabe Masson
1.3751313715187
Orchid Paradisi Mayfair
1.3750875810124
Heroes Franck Boclet
1.3750875810124
Coca Cofinluxe
1.3750875810124
Fleur de Mystere La Fleur by Livvy
1.3750875810124
Sandalwood Vanilla Perfume Oil Scent by the Sea
1.3750437905062
Nuit d`Ambre Des Filles a la Vanille
1.375
Ahebbak Ajmal
1.375
Reve Voile Avon
1.375
Passionate Woman Bejar
1.375
Hera Class
1.375
Sex Victorine
1.375
Millefleurs Angela Flanders
1.3674231518655
Skin Musk Parfums de Coeur
1.3652562487301
Bollywood or Bust Smell Bent
1.3638549525311
Prema Ramakrishnananda

Advertisement

Advertisement

Popular brands and perfumes: