Tea

Group: Grass and Green Components

Tea
Tea
Tea

When you are feeling tired and lacking energy, then a cup of tea will help you to steal a moment and provide freshness with mind-blowing instant energy. Usually, people are addicted to the aroma, flavor and taste of tea; they fixed the time for a cup of tea in their daily routine and that is known as “TEA TIME.” It is also served as a morning drink (bed tea) for nearly 2/3 of the world's population daily. In pleasant weather, you can catch people savoring a steaming cup of tea along with fried snacks. In fact, it is so popular as a cultural norm to offer tea to guests and visitors instead of alcoholic drinks in India. It is one of the non-alcoholic caffeine-containing beverage used worldwide and further gaining popularity as an important "health drink."

Plucking of Tea Leaves. Planting of shade trees in the tea gardens
to prevent the tea plants from higher temperature

A visit to Himachal Pradesh regions is made truly memorable by the endless rolling carpets of green, which are the tea gardens, and I was feeling enthralled and captivated at the sight of the huge tea estates. A majority of the tea factories are located within the premises of the tea estates of Kangra Valley and Palampur in Himachal and this is what accounts for the freshness of the tea. The process of tea production has a series of procedures and processes. The process starts with the plucking of tea leaves in the tea estates by female employees carrying a basket over the head and ends with the production of the ultimate tea.

SOME VIEWS OF TEA GARDEN AT KANGRA VALLEY, HIMACHAL PRADESH

Loading...

BOTANY

The Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) belongs to the family Theaceae. This cultivated taxa is comprised of three main natural hybrids. They are:

(1) C. sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze or China type having biggest leaves
(2) C. assamica (Masters) or Assam type having smallest leaves
(3) C. assamica sub spp lasiocalyx (Planchon ex Watt.) or Cambod or Southern type having intermediate leaves

Tea is an evergreen, perennial, cross-pollinated plant and grows naturally as tall as 15 m. However, under cultivated conditions, the bush height of 60–100 cm is maintained for harvesting the tender leaves for even more than 100 years. Leaves are alternate, elliptic-oblong, 4-30 x 1.5-10 cm, (thinly) leathery, serrate, acuminate and young ones finely pubescent. The leaves of var. sinensis are rather leathery and stiff, dark green, 4-7 cm long, with a matte surface and indistinct marginal veins, while the leaves of var. assamica are softer, supple, lighter green, 15-20 cm long, often more pendant, with a glossy surface. The flowers are white in color and grow singly or in pairs at the axils. The fruits are green in color with 2–3 seeds.

HISTORICAL EVENTS

Interestingly, this wonderful plant of tea began as a medicinal herb rather than a beverage. Despite the legends and all the beautiful myths, in the fourth century A.D. “Shen Nung” (from China) is the first person who drank tea, according to legend. However, this theory does not have any authenticity with records. According to some other authentic records, tea spread through the subsequent Han Dynasty (202 BC—AD220) as a widely used medicinal herb. After the Han Dynasty broke up, China underwent 370 years of disunity with different dynasties ruling different regions, known as the six Dynasties. Out of these six Dynasties, four are Tang Dynasty, Sung Dynasty, Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty. During the Tang period, tea spread throughout China as a popular beverage. The aristocracy raised tea drinking to an art form.

In India during the year 1774, Warren Hastings sent a selection of China seeds to George Bogle, the then British emissary in Bhutan. for planting the same in Bhutan. But nothing seemed to come out of this experiment. In 1776, Sir Joseph Banks, the great English Botanist, was asked to prepare a series of notes and it was recommended by him to undertake the cultivation of tea in India. In 1780, Robert Kyd experimented with tea cultivation in India with seeds, the consignment of which was stated to have arrived from China. A few decades later it was Robrt Bruce in 1823 who discovered tea plants growing wild in Upper Brahmaputra valley. In May 1838 the first Indian tea from Assam was sent to England for public sale.

In India, there are many tea-growing regions. These regions are geographically separated, thereby producing entirely different teas both in style and in taste/flavor. These regions including Darjeeling, Assam, Nilgiri, Kerala, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Orissa, Bihar, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya and in the adjacent plain areas of Dooars and Terai of West Bengal, out of these regions only three Darjeeling, Assam and Nilgiri regions are the main regions producing most of the tea from India.

In Himachal Pradesh mostly in Kangra valley and Palampur region, Orthodox teas are manufactured. There are too many Tea Estates under private ownership and under also the Government Organisation CSIR (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research).

Experimental Tea Processing Unit at IHBT, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh
Here tea is manufactured for experimental purpose

Tea Plantations for Germplasm Collection at IHBT

I have visited The Palampur Co-operative Tea Factory Limited and reviewed the tea processing in the traditional way, which involve the following steps:

1. Withering
2. Rolling
3. Fermentation
4. Drying
5. Sorting and Grading

Tea Withering in Withering Tanks or Chambers (above)

Withering Tank (above)

Rolling Machine – After withering, Tea leaves are rolled by the rolling machine (above)

Manually Operated Tea Rolling Machines for rolling the withered leaves (above)

Hot Air Oven for drying the rolled leaves (above)

Automated Drying Machine to drying fermented leaves (above)

Sorting of the Fermented Tea Leaves (above and below)


TYPES OF TEA

Green leaves are plucked from the tea bushes and manufactured into "Made Tea" or "Tea" in the Tea Factories through a series of manufacturing processes. Made tea or Tea is classified into two types viz. Black Tea and Green Tea.

Green tea is different from Black tea since the fermentation of green leaves is arrested in manufacturing green tea.

Again black tea is of two types viz. Orthodox tea and CTC tea. Orthodox teas are manufactured with the help of an orthodox roller in the process of rolling while CTC machine/Rotervan is used in the rolling process in manufacturing CTC teas. "CTC" stands for "Crushing, Tearing and Curling."

A Sample of Orthodox Tea (above)

Apart from Orthodox, CTC and Green tea, another one which is known as “Instant tea” is also being manufactured in India and in a few other tea producing countries of the world, like Kenya and Sri Lanka. The factories for instant tea are separate and known as an Instant tea factory. The procedure for manufacturing Instant tea is different—the raw materials used for manufacturing Instant tea are green tea leaves and/or tea waste. The manufacture of Instant tea in India started since 1960.

Grading of Various Type of Tea (above)

Oolong tea is another type of tea, which made in a different manner. It is produced in a unique way including withering under the strong sun and oxidation before curling and twisting. The traditional Oolong tea is brewed in a special type of pot known as Gaiwan and the final sip may vary according to the length of brewing time.

Raw Fermented Tea Leaves for Sorting and Grading (above)

Bagging of Tea (above)

QUALITY OF TEA

The Scientists of the Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT), Palampur, Himachal Pradesh (a leading Institute engaged in research and development on Tea) says that the quality of tea is comprised of internal and external characters like aroma/flavor, strength, colou, briskness and character of the infused leaf. The quality of tea may vary between garden to garden, region to region and depend on the tea leaves, plucked at different times in a particular garden. The green tea leaves of the plant belonging to the species of Camellia sinensis has its natural "aroma." Tea manufacturers maintain the natural aroma in the made tea as far as possible. The quality of tea depends primarily on the nature and chemical composition of the plucked leaf,  depending on the type of bush, the growing conditions and the kind of plucked leaf like coarseness and fineness, etc. Only careful and proper processing will bring out the full potential of the green leaf.

COLOR OF THE LEAF

The grey color of tea leaves is not desirable as it denotes faulty manufacture. It plays an important part in liquoring properties. If it is absent, the tea is deprived of its fullest liquoring capabilities. A brown appearance, on the other hand, is often unavoidable with very "tippy" tea. The reason for this is the hair growth down the shoot, which has been picked for manufacture. The second leaf may have a quantity of hair insufficient to produce a golden appearance known as "tip" but sufficient to discolor the leaf to that of a brownish color. During firing this hair is affixed to the leaf and results in a brownish leaf appearance.

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF TEA

The main constituents of tea leaves belong to the polyphenol group, accounting for 25 to 35% on a dry weight basis. The polyphenols in tea mainly includes six groups of compounds, namely flavanols, hydroxyl-4-flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, flavonols and phenolic acids. These compounds contribute to the bitterness, astringency and sweet aftertaste of tea beverages. Tea contains also favonols, mainly quercetin, kaempferol, myrecetin, and their glycosides. In black tea, the oxidation of polyphenols during processing leads to the formation of catechins and gallic acid complexes such as theaflavins, theaflavinic acids, thearubigins or theasinensis, and of proanthocyanidin polymers. Tea contains many amino acids, but theanine, specific to the tea plant, is the most abundant, accounting for 50% of the total amino acids. Chlorophyll, carotenoids, lipids and volatile compounds are not major constituents in a tea brew but they play an important role in the development of the aroma.

TEMPERATURE RANGE and RANGE OF pH FOR CULTIVATION

Temperature affects tea yield by influencing the rate of photosynthesis and controlling growth and dormancy. In general, the ambient temperature within 13°C and 28-32°C is conducive for growth of tea. Maximum ambient temperature above 32°C is unfavorable for optimum photosynthesis. Flushing commences from March with the rise in temperature. Winter dormancy, however, is the result of interaction of a short day length and low temperature. Tea grows well on high land, well-drained soils having a good depth, acidic pH in the range 4.5 to 5.5 and more than 2% organic matter.

TEA RECIPES IN INDIA

Tea with Milk - Need Some creative inspiration? Try Indian Chai Tea. In India, all tea is called "chai." The most common method of brewing Indian chai involves tossing tea leaves (usually CTC) into a kettle of boiling water, simmering for a few minutes, adding milk and sugar, and once the milk boils, removing from the stove and straining into a pre-warmed teapot or mug. Indian chai sold by chai wallahs at train stations is usually made this way, and is very strong, milky, and sweet. The unglazed clay cup used for serving is then tossed from the train as you travel down the line.

Masala Chai - This recipe is the same as the chai recipe above, but with the addition of spices such as cardamom, ginger, cinnamon, black pepper, and so on. Many families in India have their own recipe, and grind fresh spices at home.
Tea Latte - Usually a strong black tea is mixed with steamed milk and sugar, plus flavored syrups, such as almond and vanilla. But be careful that the syrup flavor doesn’t overpower the taste of the tea.
Tea Cola - After intensive research, the Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT) at Palampur, has developed value-added tea-based products, including a range of beverages with healing properties that are free from hazardous chemicals. Besides, it has also developed a technology for preparing wines from the orthodox variety of tea grown in large areas of the Kangra valley. The tea wine is produced by fermenting wild berries, and tea leaves are used for activation of yeast. As an alternative to cola brands, the IHBT has recently developed a 100% natural "tea cola" and is now looking to sell the technology to private investors.


Source:

The Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT), Palampur,
Himachal Pradesh.
The Palampur Co-operative Tea Factory, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh

Photo from Gardens and Factory by Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta
 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta (cshekhar)

Fragrantica Writer

 

 




 

 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Tea

1.5145434748795
Aroma Tonic Lancome
1.5128324778348
Fraicheur Vegetale The Vert Yves Rocher
1.5066106703998
Eau De Fleur de Thé Kenzo
1.5054440815057
Russian Caravan Tea CB I Hate Perfume
1.5051329911339
Wish of Peace Avon
1.5030331311246
Green Tea Therapy The Healing Garden
1.5019443148235
Te Bianco L`Erbolario
1.5014776792658
Te Verde (Green Tea) L`Erbolario
1.50132213408
Tea & Cedar L`Erbolario
1.501244361487
Green Tea Al-Rehab
1.5011665888941
Earl Grey Tea Demeter Fragrance
1.5011665888941
Jasmin Perle de Thé Fragonard
1.5007777259294
Perle de Silences Jacomo
1.5006999533364
Mountain Water for Her Victorinox Swiss Army
1.5006221807435
Green Tea Demeter Fragrance
1.5006221807435
Te Verde Tesori d`Oriente
1.5006221807435
Maiden Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5004666355576
Tea Leaf Philosophy
1.5003888629647
Tommy Girl Brights Tommy Hilfiger
1.5003888629647
Tokyo Tea Outremer
1.5003110903718
Freesia – White Tea Durance de Provence
1.5003110903718
Hibiscus Tea Demeter Fragrance
1.5002333177788
Fleur de Sephora Jasmine Sephora
1.5001555451859
Notas para dos Bottega Verde
1.5000777725929
No. 4 Paper + Lantern Crow
1.5
Green Tea Extract Royal Apothic
1.5
Rocky Man Irridium Jeanne Arthes
1.5
Douceur Nature The Vert Corine de Farme
1.4997666822212
Green Tea Jalaine
1.4745093333333
Flowerbomb Viktor&Rolf
1.4712101807435
Splash Seduction In Black Antonio Banderas
1.4709768629647
Verino Pour Homme Roberto Verino
1.4577913555763
The Vert Roger & Gallet
1.4517481468347
Gucci Pour Homme II Gucci
1.4474098971846
Cruise Collection Escale a Pondichery Dior
1.4393665422305
Tea/Rose CB I Hate Perfume
1.4389301311246
Jade Blossom Stila
1.4376555451859
Thea Verde Parfums Berdoues
1.4366697973246
Bvlgari Pour Homme Soir Bvlgari
1.4288043177788
Esprit de Thé Esteban
1.4287265451859
Calypso The Calypso Christiane Celle
1.4286487725929
Jardin Prive Herve Gambs Paris
1.4286480407528
Cherry Blossom Guerlain
1.428571
Varens Original Spring Tea Ulric de Varens
1.426030445948
Style Pastels Tender Green Jil Sander
1.4168225451859
Tea Leaves Green Tea & Bamboo Monotheme Fine Fragrances Venezia
1.4074166791103
Green Tea Elizabeth Arden
1.4011665888941
A Rather Novel Collection 1856 Darjeeling by Adriana Medina Anthropologie
1.4009332711153
Love Generation Freedom Jeanne Arthes
1.4006221807435
Sweet Tea Elizabeth W
1.4005444081506
Thé - Tea Outremer
1.4
Free B Fragrances
1.3919999037175
Aqua Cèdre Blanc Azzaro
1.3858621748328
The Vert a la Menthe (Green Tea with Mint) L`Occitane en Provence
1.3822407312179
The Vert (Green Tea) L`Occitane en Provence
1.3810365940271
Ange Ou Demon Le Secret Givenchy
1.3754666355576
Green Tea Monotheme Fine Fragrances Venezia
1.3753110903718
Perle d`Aubusson Aubusson
1.3752333177788
Be Different Mojo
1.3750777725929
The Orchid Drinkers DS & Durga
1.3750777725929
Fire + Ice for Women Bogner
1.3651136792658
24 Old Bond Street Atkinsons
1.3644137259294
Embalming Fluid Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.3576892054752
Eau Parfumee au The Rouge Bvlgari
1.3575318629647
Vanilla Citron Esscentual Alchemy
1.3574540903718
Red Tea & Fig Mary Kay
1.3572962652045
Just Play for Her Avon
1.3542033526209
L`Eau d`Issey Une Goutte de Nuage Issey Miyake
1.3539520437082
Éclat d’Arpège Pretty Face Lanvin
1.3531743177788
Blood Sweat Tears Atelier de Geste
1.3356661777881
Chaumet Homme Chaumet
1.3351995422305
Cedarwood Tea CB I Hate Perfume
1.3339551807435
Green Tea No.1900 C.O.Bigelow
1.3338774081506
Japonesque Royal Apothic
1.3338774081506
Aqua Aromatica The Vert Florascent
1.3337218629647
Wild Ginger Chai Soivohle
1.3337218629647
Grapefruit Tea Demeter Fragrance
1.3334885451859
Boum Muscat Jeanne Arthes
1.3334885451859
Always Calm Demeter Fragrance
1.3334107725929
Cumberland Ti Soivohle
1.3334107725929
Tobacco and Tea Noir Melange Perfume
1.3332552274071
Roll-On Perfume No. 5 Melange Perfume
1.3331774548141
Element of Surprise Creative Universe Beth Terry
1.3272535888941
White Tea Monotheme Fine Fragrances Venezia
1.3237449970446
Comme des Garcons Series 1 Leaves: Tea Comme des Garcons
1.3225798562762
Eclat d’Arpège Lanvin
1.321429
Patchouli Narcisse Neil Morris
1.3198163689532
Black Bvlgari
1.3184556691554
Eau Parfumee au The Blanc Bvlgari
1.3176740289314
Roxy Love Roxy
1.3173996733551
Green Tea Intense Elizabeth Arden
1.3146538841188
Silver Mountain Water Creed
1.3127085941826
Bvlgari Eau Parfumee au The Vert Extreme Bvlgari
1.3117813277337
Still Jennifer Lopez
1.3100945444082
Omnia Crystalline Bvlgari
1.3087808163011
Ybris Farmacia SS. Annunziata
1.3087808163011
Ecume de The Comptoir Sud Pacifique
1.3080030903718
Plum Blossom & Tobacco Melange Perfume
1.3065449763571
Scent CoSTUME NATIONAL
1.3058298133458
Tea Collection Assam and Grapefruit Jo Malone
1.3044713714419
Aqua Allegoria Herba Fresca Guerlain
1.3009332711153
Lavander Tea CB I Hate Perfume
1.3008554985223
Cendres de The Phaedon
1.3
The Harlot's House Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.2993678511433
Green Tea Tropical Elizabeth Arden
1.2974407696376
Chemical Bonding Ineke
1.2960440785503
The Vert & Bigarade L`Occitane en Provence
1.294118
Secret Garden Botanique
1.2865694985223
Boum Que Calor Jeanne Arthes
1.2864542336289
Kenzo Amour Kenzo
1.2846176119148
Bulletproof Tokyo Milk Parfumarie Curiosite
1.2824165888941
First Blush Clean
1.2812007696376
Eau du Fier Annick Goutal
1.2808523697309
The Beat EDT Burberry
1.2806254518588
Flirty Alice Vivienne Westwood
1.2789679301602
The Beat Burberry
1.2783818393218
Green Tea Lavender Elizabeth Arden
1.2762466438015
Rosewood Banana Republic
1.275215722974
No. 01 Ginger Essence & White Tea Rituals
1.273971361487
Lieber Gustav Krigler
1.2735824985223
A Rather Novel Collection Silk Road Caravan by Stephen Nilsen Anthropologie
1.2735047259294
Thays Fueguia 1833
1.2728825451859
Corazon Abinoam
1.2718054949448
Hermessence Osmanthe Yunnan Hermes
1.2696148044797
The Bergamote - Bergamot Tea L`Occitane en Provence
1.2683002244517
Cherry Blossom Glittering Guerlain
1.2681708670089
Moschino Funny! Moschino
1.2654059533364
Chance No 18 Tokyo Milk Parfumarie Curiosite
1.264519445948
Annayake Pour Elle Annayake
1.263149361487
PG06 L'Eau Rare Matale Parfumerie Generale
1.2595209037175
Creation The Vert Ted Lapidus
1.2586871807435
Cafe Green Cafe Parfums
1.2585095244984
Indian Summer Priscilla Presley
1.2585092711153
White Tea Berkeley Square
1.2584876868875
Paul Smith Rose Paul Smith
1.257543941515
Green Tea Exotic Elizabeth Arden
1.2574540903718
Water Cancer CnR Create
1.2564740542853
Eau Parfumee au The Vert Bvlgari
1.2543366254472
Tea for Two L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.2532634429927
Agua de Loewe Loewe
1.2511665888941
A Rather Novel Collection Taverns & The Hague by Caroline Sabas Anthropologie
1.2507777259294
Te Verde Adolfo Dominguez
1.2506999533364
Cafe Petite Voluspa
1.2506999533364
Geisha O-Cha Aroma M
1.2506999533364
1902 The Vert Parfums Berdoues
1.2506588824078
Mon Jasmin Noir L'Eau Exquise Bvlgari
1.250566495567
Eau Blanche Brecourt
1.2505444081506
Jasper Conran II Man Jasper Conran
1.2504666355576
Burlesque: Charm Opus Oils
1.2503888629647
Modern Love 104 Tokyo Milk Parfumarie Curiosite

Popular brands and perfumes: