Tea

Group: Grass and Green Components

Tea
Tea
Tea

When you are feeling tired and lacking energy, then a cup of tea will help you to steal a moment and provide freshness with mind-blowing instant energy. Usually, people are addicted to the aroma, flavor and taste of tea; they fixed the time for a cup of tea in their daily routine and that is known as “TEA TIME.” It is also served as a morning drink (bed tea) for nearly 2/3 of the world's population daily. In pleasant weather, you can catch people savoring a steaming cup of tea along with fried snacks. In fact, it is so popular as a cultural norm to offer tea to guests and visitors instead of alcoholic drinks in India. It is one of the non-alcoholic caffeine-containing beverage used worldwide and further gaining popularity as an important "health drink."

Plucking of Tea Leaves. Planting of shade trees in the tea gardens
to prevent the tea plants from higher temperature

A visit to Himachal Pradesh regions is made truly memorable by the endless rolling carpets of green, which are the tea gardens, and I was feeling enthralled and captivated at the sight of the huge tea estates. A majority of the tea factories are located within the premises of the tea estates of Kangra Valley and Palampur in Himachal and this is what accounts for the freshness of the tea. The process of tea production has a series of procedures and processes. The process starts with the plucking of tea leaves in the tea estates by female employees carrying a basket over the head and ends with the production of the ultimate tea.

SOME VIEWS OF TEA GARDEN AT KANGRA VALLEY, HIMACHAL PRADESH

Loading...

BOTANY

The Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) belongs to the family Theaceae. This cultivated taxa is comprised of three main natural hybrids. They are:

(1) C. sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze or China type having biggest leaves
(2) C. assamica (Masters) or Assam type having smallest leaves
(3) C. assamica sub spp lasiocalyx (Planchon ex Watt.) or Cambod or Southern type having intermediate leaves

Tea is an evergreen, perennial, cross-pollinated plant and grows naturally as tall as 15 m. However, under cultivated conditions, the bush height of 60–100 cm is maintained for harvesting the tender leaves for even more than 100 years. Leaves are alternate, elliptic-oblong, 4-30 x 1.5-10 cm, (thinly) leathery, serrate, acuminate and young ones finely pubescent. The leaves of var. sinensis are rather leathery and stiff, dark green, 4-7 cm long, with a matte surface and indistinct marginal veins, while the leaves of var. assamica are softer, supple, lighter green, 15-20 cm long, often more pendant, with a glossy surface. The flowers are white in color and grow singly or in pairs at the axils. The fruits are green in color with 2–3 seeds.

HISTORICAL EVENTS

Interestingly, this wonderful plant of tea began as a medicinal herb rather than a beverage. Despite the legends and all the beautiful myths, in the fourth century A.D. “Shen Nung” (from China) is the first person who drank tea, according to legend. However, this theory does not have any authenticity with records. According to some other authentic records, tea spread through the subsequent Han Dynasty (202 BC—AD220) as a widely used medicinal herb. After the Han Dynasty broke up, China underwent 370 years of disunity with different dynasties ruling different regions, known as the six Dynasties. Out of these six Dynasties, four are Tang Dynasty, Sung Dynasty, Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty. During the Tang period, tea spread throughout China as a popular beverage. The aristocracy raised tea drinking to an art form.

In India during the year 1774, Warren Hastings sent a selection of China seeds to George Bogle, the then British emissary in Bhutan. for planting the same in Bhutan. But nothing seemed to come out of this experiment. In 1776, Sir Joseph Banks, the great English Botanist, was asked to prepare a series of notes and it was recommended by him to undertake the cultivation of tea in India. In 1780, Robert Kyd experimented with tea cultivation in India with seeds, the consignment of which was stated to have arrived from China. A few decades later it was Robrt Bruce in 1823 who discovered tea plants growing wild in Upper Brahmaputra valley. In May 1838 the first Indian tea from Assam was sent to England for public sale.

In India, there are many tea-growing regions. These regions are geographically separated, thereby producing entirely different teas both in style and in taste/flavor. These regions including Darjeeling, Assam, Nilgiri, Kerala, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Orissa, Bihar, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya and in the adjacent plain areas of Dooars and Terai of West Bengal, out of these regions only three Darjeeling, Assam and Nilgiri regions are the main regions producing most of the tea from India.

In Himachal Pradesh mostly in Kangra valley and Palampur region, Orthodox teas are manufactured. There are too many Tea Estates under private ownership and under also the Government Organisation CSIR (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research).

Experimental Tea Processing Unit at IHBT, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh
Here tea is manufactured for experimental purpose

Tea Plantations for Germplasm Collection at IHBT

I have visited The Palampur Co-operative Tea Factory Limited and reviewed the tea processing in the traditional way, which involve the following steps:

1. Withering
2. Rolling
3. Fermentation
4. Drying
5. Sorting and Grading

Tea Withering in Withering Tanks or Chambers (above)

Withering Tank (above)

Rolling Machine – After withering, Tea leaves are rolled by the rolling machine (above)

Manually Operated Tea Rolling Machines for rolling the withered leaves (above)

Hot Air Oven for drying the rolled leaves (above)

Automated Drying Machine to drying fermented leaves (above)

Sorting of the Fermented Tea Leaves (above and below)


TYPES OF TEA

Green leaves are plucked from the tea bushes and manufactured into "Made Tea" or "Tea" in the Tea Factories through a series of manufacturing processes. Made tea or Tea is classified into two types viz. Black Tea and Green Tea.

Green tea is different from Black tea since the fermentation of green leaves is arrested in manufacturing green tea.

Again black tea is of two types viz. Orthodox tea and CTC tea. Orthodox teas are manufactured with the help of an orthodox roller in the process of rolling while CTC machine/Rotervan is used in the rolling process in manufacturing CTC teas. "CTC" stands for "Crushing, Tearing and Curling."

A Sample of Orthodox Tea (above)

Apart from Orthodox, CTC and Green tea, another one which is known as “Instant tea” is also being manufactured in India and in a few other tea producing countries of the world, like Kenya and Sri Lanka. The factories for instant tea are separate and known as an Instant tea factory. The procedure for manufacturing Instant tea is different—the raw materials used for manufacturing Instant tea are green tea leaves and/or tea waste. The manufacture of Instant tea in India started since 1960.

Grading of Various Type of Tea (above)

Oolong tea is another type of tea, which made in a different manner. It is produced in a unique way including withering under the strong sun and oxidation before curling and twisting. The traditional Oolong tea is brewed in a special type of pot known as Gaiwan and the final sip may vary according to the length of brewing time.

Raw Fermented Tea Leaves for Sorting and Grading (above)

Bagging of Tea (above)

QUALITY OF TEA

The Scientists of the Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT), Palampur, Himachal Pradesh (a leading Institute engaged in research and development on Tea) says that the quality of tea is comprised of internal and external characters like aroma/flavor, strength, colou, briskness and character of the infused leaf. The quality of tea may vary between garden to garden, region to region and depend on the tea leaves, plucked at different times in a particular garden. The green tea leaves of the plant belonging to the species of Camellia sinensis has its natural "aroma." Tea manufacturers maintain the natural aroma in the made tea as far as possible. The quality of tea depends primarily on the nature and chemical composition of the plucked leaf,  depending on the type of bush, the growing conditions and the kind of plucked leaf like coarseness and fineness, etc. Only careful and proper processing will bring out the full potential of the green leaf.

COLOR OF THE LEAF

The grey color of tea leaves is not desirable as it denotes faulty manufacture. It plays an important part in liquoring properties. If it is absent, the tea is deprived of its fullest liquoring capabilities. A brown appearance, on the other hand, is often unavoidable with very "tippy" tea. The reason for this is the hair growth down the shoot, which has been picked for manufacture. The second leaf may have a quantity of hair insufficient to produce a golden appearance known as "tip" but sufficient to discolor the leaf to that of a brownish color. During firing this hair is affixed to the leaf and results in a brownish leaf appearance.

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF TEA

The main constituents of tea leaves belong to the polyphenol group, accounting for 25 to 35% on a dry weight basis. The polyphenols in tea mainly includes six groups of compounds, namely flavanols, hydroxyl-4-flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, flavonols and phenolic acids. These compounds contribute to the bitterness, astringency and sweet aftertaste of tea beverages. Tea contains also favonols, mainly quercetin, kaempferol, myrecetin, and their glycosides. In black tea, the oxidation of polyphenols during processing leads to the formation of catechins and gallic acid complexes such as theaflavins, theaflavinic acids, thearubigins or theasinensis, and of proanthocyanidin polymers. Tea contains many amino acids, but theanine, specific to the tea plant, is the most abundant, accounting for 50% of the total amino acids. Chlorophyll, carotenoids, lipids and volatile compounds are not major constituents in a tea brew but they play an important role in the development of the aroma.

TEMPERATURE RANGE and RANGE OF pH FOR CULTIVATION

Temperature affects tea yield by influencing the rate of photosynthesis and controlling growth and dormancy. In general, the ambient temperature within 13°C and 28-32°C is conducive for growth of tea. Maximum ambient temperature above 32°C is unfavorable for optimum photosynthesis. Flushing commences from March with the rise in temperature. Winter dormancy, however, is the result of interaction of a short day length and low temperature. Tea grows well on high land, well-drained soils having a good depth, acidic pH in the range 4.5 to 5.5 and more than 2% organic matter.

TEA RECIPES IN INDIA

Tea with Milk - Need Some creative inspiration? Try Indian Chai Tea. In India, all tea is called "chai." The most common method of brewing Indian chai involves tossing tea leaves (usually CTC) into a kettle of boiling water, simmering for a few minutes, adding milk and sugar, and once the milk boils, removing from the stove and straining into a pre-warmed teapot or mug. Indian chai sold by chai wallahs at train stations is usually made this way, and is very strong, milky, and sweet. The unglazed clay cup used for serving is then tossed from the train as you travel down the line.

Masala Chai - This recipe is the same as the chai recipe above, but with the addition of spices such as cardamom, ginger, cinnamon, black pepper, and so on. Many families in India have their own recipe, and grind fresh spices at home.
Tea Latte - Usually a strong black tea is mixed with steamed milk and sugar, plus flavored syrups, such as almond and vanilla. But be careful that the syrup flavor doesn’t overpower the taste of the tea.
Tea Cola - After intensive research, the Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT) at Palampur, has developed value-added tea-based products, including a range of beverages with healing properties that are free from hazardous chemicals. Besides, it has also developed a technology for preparing wines from the orthodox variety of tea grown in large areas of the Kangra valley. The tea wine is produced by fermenting wild berries, and tea leaves are used for activation of yeast. As an alternative to cola brands, the IHBT has recently developed a 100% natural "tea cola" and is now looking to sell the technology to private investors.


Source:

The Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT), Palampur,
Himachal Pradesh.
The Palampur Co-operative Tea Factory, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh

Photo from Gardens and Factory by Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta
 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta (cshekhar)

Fragrantica Writer

 

 




 

 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Tea

1.5143345216875
Aroma Tonic Lancome
1.5127748068925
Fraicheur Vegetale The Vert Yves Rocher
1.50623885918
Eau De Fleur de Thé Kenzo
1.505421865716
Russian Caravan Tea CB I Hate Perfume
1.5048276886512
Wish of Peace Avon
1.5032679738562
Green Tea Therapy The Healing Garden
1.5020796197267
Te Bianco L`Erbolario
1.501559714795
Te Verde (Green Tea) L`Erbolario
1.5014854426619
Green Tea Al-Rehab
1.5014111705288
Tea & Cedar L`Erbolario
1.5011883541295
Earl Grey Tea Demeter Fragrance
1.5011140819964
Jasmin Perle de Thé Fragonard
1.5008169934641
Love Generation Freedom Jeanne Arthes
1.500742721331
Perle de Silences Jacomo
1.5006684491979
Green Tea Demeter Fragrance
1.5006684491979
Te Verde Tesori d`Oriente
1.5005199049317
Papillon Novae Plus
1.5004456327986
Tea Leaf Philosophy
1.5004456327986
Maiden Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5003713606655
Tokyo Tea Outremer
1.5002970885324
Freesia – White Tea Durance en Provence
1.5002970885324
Hibiscus Tea Demeter Fragrance
1.5002228163993
Fleur de Sephora Jasmine Sephora
1.5001485442662
Notas para dos Bottega Verde
1.5000742721331
No. 4 Paper + Lantern Crow
1.5000742721331
White Tea Ebba Los Angeles
1.5
Green Tea Extract Royal Apothic
1.5
Rocky Man Irridium Jeanne Arthes
1.5
Douceur Nature The Vert Corine de Farme
1.4997771836007
Green Tea Jalaine
1.4712153333333
Flowerbomb Viktor&Rolf
1.4711821770648
Splash Seduction In Black Antonio Banderas
1.4577298722519
The Vert Roger & Gallet
1.4435745561497
Gucci Pour Homme II Gucci
1.4392825311943
Tea/Rose CB I Hate Perfume
1.4389421574569
Jade Blossom Stila
1.4380129221628
Cruise Collection Escale a Pondichery Dior
1.4376485442662
Thea Verde Parfums Berdoues
1.4359337623292
Bvlgari Pour Homme Soir Bvlgari
1.4287938163993
Esprit de Thé Esteban
1.4287195442662
Calypso The Calypso Christiane Celle
1.4286452721331
Jardin Prive Herve Gambs Paris
1.428571
Varens Original Spring Tea Ulric de Varens
1.4258064165181
Style Pastels Tender Green Jil Sander
1.4168155442662
Tea Leaves Green Tea & Bamboo Monotheme Fine Fragrances Venezia
1.4067319477124
Green Tea Elizabeth Arden
1.4026737967914
Cherry Blossom Guerlain
1.4011140819964
A Rather Novel Collection 1856 Darjeeling by Adriana Medina Anthropologie
1.4005199049317
Thé - Tea Outremer
1.4
Free B Fragrances
1.3949395317885
The Vert (Green Tea) L`Occitane en Provence
1.3918598853238
Aqua Cèdre Blanc Azzaro
1.3897059934641
Sweet Tea Elizabeth W
1.3813962139037
Ange Ou Demon Le Secret Givenchy
1.3754456327986
Green Tea Monotheme Fine Fragrances Venezia
1.3752970885324
Perle d`Aubusson Aubusson
1.3752228163993
Be Different Mojo
1.3750742721331
Fire + Ice for Women Bogner
1.3750742721331
The Orchid Drinkers D.S. & Durga
1.3711989869281
Devotion House of Matriarch
1.3679411770648
Embalming Fluid Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.3652699869281
24 Old Bond Street Atkinsons
1.3611606607249
Eau Parfumee au The Rouge Bvlgari
1.3605941770648
Aqua Aromatica The Vert Florascent
1.3575143606655
Vanilla Citron Esscentual Alchemy
1.3574400885324
Red Tea & Fig Mary Kay
1.3570259673203
Just Play for Her Avon
1.3539905870469
L`Eau d`Issey Une Goutte de Nuage Issey Miyake
1.3539065377302
Éclat d’Arpège Pretty Face Lanvin
1.3537878787879
The Vert a la Menthe (Green Tea with Mint) L`Occitane en Provence
1.3355611639929
Chaumet Homme Chaumet
1.3353383475936
Cedarwood Tea CB I Hate Perfume
1.3340014491979
Japonesque Royal Apothic
1.3340014491979
Green Tea No.1900 C.O.Bigelow
1.3337786327986
Verino Pour Homme Roberto Verino
1.3337043606655
Grapefruit Tea Demeter Fragrance
1.3334815442662
Boum Muscat Jeanne Arthes
1.3334815442662
Always Calm Demeter Fragrance
1.3334072721331
Tobacco and Tea Noir Melange Perfume
1.3332587278669
The Harlot's House Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.3332587278669
Roll-On Perfume No. 5 Melange Perfume
1.3331844557338
Element of Surprise Creative Universe Beth Terry
1.3271268098633
White Tea Monotheme Fine Fragrances Venezia
1.3217205377302
Tommy Girl Brights Tommy Hilfiger
1.321429
Patchouli Narcisse Neil Morris
1.3204456327986
Wild Ginger Chai Soivohle
1.3202228163993
Blood Sweat Tears Atelier de Geste
1.3197556238859
Eclat d’Arpège Lanvin
1.3183003303624
Silver Mountain Water Creed
1.3174171128936
Black Bvlgari
1.317392016637
Roxy Love Roxy
1.3160860885324
Cumberland Ti Soivohle
1.3138299720737
Eau Parfumee au The Blanc Bvlgari
1.3131684491979
Azur Thymes
1.3104229875223
Bvlgari Eau Parfumee au The Vert Extreme Bvlgari
1.3087318098633
Ecume de The Comptoir Sud Pacifique
1.3080784052288
Still Jennifer Lopez
1.3079890885324
Plum Blossom & Tobacco Melange Perfume
1.3066700819964
Chai Robert Piguet
1.3058523410576
Tea Collection Assam and Grapefruit Jo Malone
1.3049762329174
Green Tea Intense Elizabeth Arden
1.3045315680333
Omnia Crystalline Bvlgari
1.3029875311943
Comme des Garcons Series 1 Leaves: Tea Comme des Garcons
1.3008169934641
Lavender Tea CB I Hate Perfume
1.300742721331
Cendres de The Phaedon
1.3004599494949
Aqua Allegoria Herba Fresca Guerlain
1.294118
Secret Garden Botanique
1.2939620362448
Green Tea Tropical Elizabeth Arden
1.2921126327986
Bewitched Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.2920581675579
Scent CoSTUME NATIONAL
1.2901974789067
The Vert & Bigarade L`Occitane en Provence
1.2866795377302
Mountain Water for Her Victorinox Swiss Army
1.2865309934641
Boum Que Calor Jeanne Arthes
1.2864098033274
Chemical Bonding Ineke
1.2863081770648
Cafe Green Cafe Parfums
1.2857250552585
Kenzo Amour Kenzo
1.2843172590612
Flirty Alice Vivienne Westwood
1.2840347052882
Green Tea Lavender Elizabeth Arden
1.2825126262626
First Blush Clean
1.2814173475936
Eau du Fier Annick Goutal
1.2801980956625
The Beat EDT Burberry
1.2738410819964
Lieber Gustav Krigler
1.2735439934641
Thays Fueguia 1833
1.2735439934641
A Rather Novel Collection Silk Road Caravan by Stephen Nilsen Anthropologie
1.2732363315508
Bulletproof Tokyo Milk Parfumarie Curiosite
1.2728755442662
Corazon Abinoam
1.272572436126
No. 01 Ginger Essence & White Tea Rituals
1.2724534325609
The Beat Burberry
1.2706357017231
Creation The Vert Ted Lapidus
1.2684421200238
Moschino Funny! Moschino
1.268226714795
Cherry Blossom Glittering Guerlain
1.2655972655971
Chance No 18 Tokyo Milk Parfumarie Curiosite
1.2652181021985
Rosewood Banana Republic
1.2648153214498
Annayake Pour Elle Annayake
1.2641772204397
Hermessence Osmanthe Yunnan Hermes
1.2633904426619
PG06 L'Eau Rare Matale Parfumerie Generale
1.2621950297089
The Bergamote - Bergamot Tea L`Occitane en Provence
1.2614938865122
Eau Parfumee au The Vert Bvlgari
1.2601446197267
Lavander Tea No.362 Gap
1.258597057041
Paul Smith Rose Paul Smith
1.2585415377302
White Tea Berkeley Square
1.2583348134284
Indian Summer Priscilla Presley
1.2574400885324
Water Cancer CnR Create
1.2536393345217
Poe's Tobacco Tokyo Milk Parfumarie Curiosite
1.2531852198455
Agua de Loewe Loewe
1.2511140819964
A Rather Novel Collection Taverns & The Hague by Caroline Sabas Anthropologie
1.250742721331
Cafe Petite Voluspa
1.250742721331
Te Verde Adolfo Dominguez
1.250742721331
1902 The Vert Parfums Berdoues
1.2506684491979
Geisha O-Cha Aroma M

Popular brands and perfumes: