Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: WOODS AND MOSSES

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Vetiver Perfumes

1.5733927401532
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5087872778879
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Christian Dior
1.5048602200708
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5021773785917
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5015163886621
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5015163886621
Vetiver Zara
1.5010886892959
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.5010109257747
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.500894280493
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.500894280493
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.500894280493
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5008553987325
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5007387534508
Intense Vetyver Zara
1.5006998716902
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.5005832264085
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.5005443446479
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5002332905634
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5001944088028
Vetyver Outremer
1.5001555270423
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5001555270423
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.5001555270423
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5001555270423
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.5001555270423
Verde Citro Natura
1.5001166452817
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5001166452817
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5001166452817
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5001166452817
Color Me Blue Milton Lloyd
1.5000777635211
Eau Intense Rodier
1.5000777635211
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000777635211
Eau de Vetyver Le Galion
1.5000388817606
A Day in Grasse Arts&Scents
1.5000388817606
Vetiver Bourbon The Merchant of Venice
1.5000388817606
White Leather N°17 The Master Perfumer
1.5000388817606
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000388817606
Vetiver Proximity Axe
1.5
Vetivert Bourbon French Parfums
1.5
Vetiver & Petitgrain Splash Tauerville
1.5
Black Shot Pull and Bear
1.5
Land of Fashion Vicini
1.5
West Indies Hi Wildflower Botanica
1.5
Vetiver Candora
1.5
01 Sweet Wood Desire Body Conjure
1.5
Rudo Khalis
1.4999611182394
Vovo Natura
1.4999222364789
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.4999222364789
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4864527534508
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.4749672402115
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.4655436993662
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4619656993662
Madrona House of Matriarch
1.4552448716902
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4545061182394
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4534705078347
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4533360376764
Woman Donna Karan
1.4378888176057
Vitrum Sammarco
1.4352884628874
Divine Attraction Initio Parfums Prives
1.4348996452817
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.4297763345775
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.4292708716902
Athunis Sigilli
1.429185013803
Eau de Cartier Vetiver Bleu Cartier
1.429138560986
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.4286487635211
Very "V" Saint Charles Shave
1.428571
Black Romane
1.4231936452817
Vetiver Jalaine
1.4201632163381
The Natural Gap
1.4186485811268
Symphonie-Passion Unum
1.4170169358451
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.416939172324
Aktis Korres
1.416667
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.4122032163381
Sultan Vetiver Nishane
1.4113461421128
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.4089821219721
Woods Abercrombie & Fitch
1.4044882905634
Our Story For Him Avon
1.4002332905634
Helen Carnate Smell Bent
1.4001944088028
Legendary Penthouse
1.4001555270423
Swiss Army Unlimited Snowpower Victorinox Swiss Army
1.4
Club Edition Monte-Carlo Sergio Tacchini
1.4
Arancia MPF
1.4
Vetyver Dolce Il Profumiere
1.3990643685213
Mirror Mirror Collection - Miroir Des Vanites Thierry Mugler
1.3970391300206
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.3936582062677
Vetiver Veritas James Heeley
1.3923822003577
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.3899776892959
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3889278817606
Amarcord Atelier Flou
1.3846538817606
Aube Drift Parfum de Terre
1.3828584628874
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.3828584628874
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.3799709899296
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3797663333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.37912146662
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.377630172324
Capim Cheiroso Companhia da Terra
1.3765747672538
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.3758553987325
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3751166452817
Lichen & Vetiver Voluspa
1.3750777635211
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3750388817606
Vetivier & Chocolat Hildegard Braukmann
1.375
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.375
Chernoe Domino Severnoye Siyanie
1.375
Tachibana Miya Shinma
1.375
Baron Lui Niche
1.3719733446479
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3708386740153
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3706810540845
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3704866452817
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.3704039697889
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.3665149899296
Eau Fraîche Molinard
1.3644116188032
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3643747534508
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.3638692905634
Madeiras Amazonia Viva
1.3638304088028
Notte d'amore Pantheon Roma
1.3637526452817
Java Wood Premiere Note
1.3627129257747
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.3622501521832
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.3612392264085
L'Eau de Paille Serge Lutens
1.3588786464093
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3581654509895
Eau Sauvage Parfum Christian Dior
1.3546514867608
onda Vero Profumo
1.354107452817
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.353213172324
Terre de Cèdre Acorelle
1.351623172324
Loup des Steppes Sama
1.3497456840857
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3478259157043
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.3465816993662
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.3449229899296
Emotional Rescue Mark Buxton
1.3444887534508
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.3402179697889
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.3390063446479
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.338074677398
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.3343439257747
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3337995811268
Castaña Cloon Keen Atelier
1.3337606993662
Aqua Colonia Vetyver Florascent
1.3337218176057
Shaded Diane Pernet
1.3336440540845
Spice Blend/ Vetiver April Aromatics
1.333605172324
Varens Homme Silver Ulric de Varens
1.3335274088028
Otto Kern Commitment Man Otto Kern
1.3335274088028
Sinai Kesling
1.3334496452817
Summer Rain Raw Spirit Fragrances
1.3334107635211
Maratons (Marathon) Dzintars
1.3333718817606
Eau Inexplicable Thirdman
1.3333718817606
Fleur de Pavot Chaugan
1.3333718817606
Bal de Bain Regency Cosmetics
1.333333
Unisekt Arae Nico Uytterhaegen
1.333333
V G Parfums
1.333333
Rock`n`Roll Victorine
1.333333
Tasman in Grey Code Deco
1.333333
Naceo Noir Lobogal
1.333333
Caspian Angela Flanders
1.333333
Dream Dubai Khalis
1.330541013803
Fumidus Profumum Roma

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