Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: WOODS AND MOSSES

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Vetiver Perfumes

1.5718284830689
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5088010103402
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Christian Dior
1.5046175704475
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5022495856027
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5014207909069
Vetiver Zara
1.5013813244929
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5011050595943
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.5010261267661
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.5009077275239
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5009077275239
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.5008682611098
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.5008287946957
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5007498618676
Intense Vetyver Zara
1.5006314626253
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.5005919962112
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.5005525297971
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5002367984845
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5001973320704
Vetyver Outremer
1.5001578656563
Verde Citro Natura
1.5001578656563
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5001578656563
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.5001578656563
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.5001578656563
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5001183992422
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5001183992422
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5001183992422
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5000789328282
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000789328282
Vetiver Proximity Axe
1.5000394664141
A Day in Grasse Arts&Scents
1.5000394664141
Vetiver Bourbon The Merchant of Venice
1.5000394664141
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000394664141
Java Wood Premiere Note
1.5
Black Shot Pull and Bear
1.5
Vetiver Candora
1.5
Land of Fashion Vicini
1.4999605335859
Vovo Natura
1.4999210671718
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.4999210671718
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4864638618676
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.4747836451969
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.4671800633831
Divine Attraction Initio Parfums Prives
1.4655501305549
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4549001977267
Vitrum Sammarco
1.4545055335859
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4531387010024
Woman Donna Karan
1.4507493973479
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4380130633831
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.4366073954535
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4349408656563
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.4292024626253
Athunis Sigilli
1.4290321153998
Eau de Cartier Vetiver Bleu Cartier
1.4286499328282
Very "V" Saint Charles Shave
1.428571
Black Romane
1.428571
Evening Rose (Вечерняя Роза) Apple Parfums
1.4231953992422
Vetiver Jalaine
1.4228415818139
Mirror Mirror Collection - Miroir Des Vanites Thierry Mugler
1.4201819252506
The Natural Gap
1.4170221977267
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.416667
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.4161505222196
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.4089569772673
Woods Abercrombie & Fitch
1.4044917984845
Our Story For Him Avon
1.4040791191886
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.4005130633831
Essence No. 6 Vetiver Elie Saab
1.4002367984845
Helen Carnate Smell Bent
1.4001578656563
Swiss Army Unlimited Snowpower Victorinox Swiss Army
1.4000394664141
Bayrhum Vetiver Creed
1.4
Varens Vétiver Ulric de Varens
1.3968985931802
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3937016137027
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.3936079214618
Vetiver Veritas James Heeley
1.3903334998816
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.3889284664141
Amarcord Atelier Flou
1.3865822611098
Sultan Vetiver Nishane
1.3846544664141
Aube Drift Parfum de Terre
1.3828660633831
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.3799809290394
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3797123333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.3776342648986
Capim Cheiroso Companhia da Terra
1.3766697757518
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.3762234588365
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.3760655931802
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3757893282816
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3751973320704
Notte d'amore Pantheon Roma
1.3751183992422
Lichen & Vetiver Voluspa
1.3750789328282
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3750394664141
Baron Lui Niche
1.3750394664141
Vetivier & Chocolat Hildegard Braukmann
1.375
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.3733932421659
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.373079660352
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.3720604626253
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.371181285579
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3706857313127
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3704883992422
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.3665249290394
Eau Fraîche Molinard
1.36556985429
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.3643858618676
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.3643396972137
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3638727984845
Madeiras Amazonia Viva
1.3621951901492
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.3589350585682
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3550790771963
Eau Sauvage Parfum Christian Dior
1.3541249924224
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.3532172648986
Terre de Cèdre Acorelle
1.3516272648986
Loup des Steppes Sama
1.3485423603284
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3482206641408
Vetiver Matale Parfumerie Generale
1.3478115893914
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.3465881305549
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.3459785818139
onda Vero Profumo
1.3444998618676
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.3416357871182
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.3389750633831
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3375772711343
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.333806596969
Castaña Cloon Keen Atelier
1.3337671305549
Aqua Colonia Vetyver Florascent
1.3337276641408
Shaded Diane Pernet
1.3336487313127
Spice Blend/ Vetiver April Aromatics
1.3335303320704
Otto Kern Commitment Man Otto Kern
1.3333724664141
Bal de Bain Regency Cosmetics
1.333333
Unisekt Arae Nico Uytterhaegen
1.333333
Naceo Noir Lobogal
1.333333
Caspian Angela Flanders
1.333333
Tasman in Grey Code Deco
1.332469048228
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.3259756641408
Lavande & Vetiver Jeanne en Provence
1.3254553244929
Aquae Nobilis Profumum Roma
1.3248765297971
Vetyver Nicolai Parfumeur Createur
1.3248370633831
Fig & Vetiver Anthousa
1.3237263320704
Oud Anfasic Dokhoon
1.3222313320704
01 06 Lime Absolue Fragrance Republic
1.3217258353461
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.3205697909069
Herrera for Men Sensual Vetiver Carolina Herrera
1.3204664133712
Comme Des Garcons Series 4 Cologne : Vettiveru Comme des Garcons
1.3202762648986
New Experience Man Tom Tailor
1.3185371977267
Precious One Angela Flanders
1.3182609328282
Divine: Eros Opus Oils
1.3177439290394
Emotional Rescue Mark Buxton
1.3166406376194
Vetiver Etro
1.3161441977267
Adone Re Profumo
1.3160652648986
Caffe Delle Vergini Hilde Soliani
1.3159863320704
Larrea La Curie
1.3150016641408
Water Bath Priprioca Natura
1.3136476641408
Entice Him Ajmal
1.3125789328282
Tobacco Mucho Stephanie de Saint-Aignan
1.3125789328282
Satin-perla Dr. Taffi
1.3111421229773
No. 17 Vetiver & Bergamot Rituals
1.3110666338306
Vetiver Pour Elle Guerlain
1.3105817984845
Courage EDT Förster and Johnsen

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