Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: Woods and Mosses

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Vetiver

1.5775950644258
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5060851926978
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Dior
1.5042499758524
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5026079397276
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.5015937409447
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5014971505844
Vetiver Zara
1.5014005602241
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5012556746837
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.501014198783
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.501014198783
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.5007727228823
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5007244277021
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.500676132522
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.5005795421617
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.5005312469816
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.5004829518014
Athunis Sigilli
1.5004346566213
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.5004346566213
Cologne Intense Borsalino
1.5004346566213
Supercilium O`Driu
1.500338066261
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5002897710808
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.5002414759007
Zeste de Vétiver Durance de Provence
1.5002414759007
Vetiver Jalaine
1.5002414759007
Mix 11 Platinum J
1.5001448855404
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5000965903603
Agua de Vetiver Angel Schlesser
1.5000965903603
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.5000965903603
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5000482951801
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000482951801
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000482951801
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000482951801
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.5
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.4999034096397
Highwayman Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4999034096397
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4999034096397
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.4998068192794
Saturnalia Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4710135662127
Woman Donna Karan
1.4673914277021
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.4618277710808
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4528436144113
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.4298749698638
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.428571
Black Romane
1.4250482951801
Blood Kiss Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4214356479281
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.418943066261
Vetiver Racinettes Ayala Moriel
1.4179125052642
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.417343132522
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.4170533614411
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.4157248072056
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.415648198783
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.4005312469816
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.400338066261
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.4002897710808
Rendezvous Night Urban Retreat
1.4001448855404
Sweet Tyranny Smell Bent
1.4000482951801
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.4000482951801
Work@holic Base Man Linn Young
1.395247891529
onda Vero Profumo
1.3883043795035
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3877248373418
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3875975120255
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.3867433333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.3852883672365
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3851945421617
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3848081807206
Lavande & Vetiver Jeanne en Provence
1.3828842469816
Sandalo del Kashmir & Vetiver Tesori d`Oriente
1.3817247228823
No. 17 Vetiver & Bergamot Rituals
1.3764005602241
The Natural Gap
1.3757727228823
1902 Vetiver Parfums Berdoues
1.3754346566213
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.3750965903603
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3733931862262
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.3686141807206
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.3640706566213
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3564182529702
Woods Abercrombie & Fitch
1.3533756566213
Freedom Sport Tommy Hilfiger
1.3516407710808
Entice Him Ajmal
1.3507727228823
Mazzolari Mazzolari
1.3505312469816
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3504829518014
Ellie Ellie Perfume
1.3493415874626
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.3456007228823
Cereus No.5 Cereus
1.3454969939148
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.3358289457162
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3356732406066
Eau Sauvage Parfum Dior
1.3349456805757
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3345809757558
Sel de Vetiver The Different Company
1.3342989036028
Windsor Eau de Toilette D.R.Harris
1.3339608373418
That's Amore! Lui Gai Mattiolo
1.333671066261
Me Myself & I Ego Facto
1.3336227710808
Brass and Bulldog Botanical Cologne Esscentual Alchemy
1.3335261807206
Sunrise Urban Men Franck Olivier
1.3335261807206
Precious One Angela Flanders
1.3334778855404
Andy Roddick Parlux
1.3334778855404
Stra-Vivara Emilio Pucci
1.333333
Trapeze Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.333333
Rose Poudre Bottega Profumiera
1.3332364096397
Aurora Fuoco Micaelangelo
1.3274652407998
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3260541023858
08 Seylon Odin
1.3202897710808
Bon Zai Ayala Moriel
1.3183751807206
Divine: Eros Opus Oils
1.3176800541872
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.3171412650439
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.3136590843234
Cowboy Grass DS & Durga
1.3133210180624
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3119786384623
Absinth Nasomatto
1.3109245421617
Tamboti Wood Susanne Lang
1.3103422166522
Vetiver Extraordinaire Frederic Malle
1.3093760481986
Just Cavalli Him Roberto Cavalli
1.3088027891432
Up To You for Him Avon
1.3063763975659
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.3043962951801
Cowgirl Grass DS & Durga
1.304348
Vanillaman Neil Morris
1.3039959036028
Cuba Green Cuba Paris
1.3035773313049
Time For Peace Kenzo
1.3031953132425
Eva Santa Maria Novella
1.3021453711968
Narciso Rodriguez For Her Narciso Rodriguez
1.300389981841
Comme Des Garcons Series 4 Cologne : Vettiveru Comme des Garcons
1.3003863614411
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.300338066261
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3001931807206
Wood Portland General Store
1.3001448855404
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.3000482951801
Oxbow for Men Oxbow
1.3
Nononsense 1 Nico Uytterhaegen
1.2992288072056
Vetyver Lanvin
1.2986009698638
BOSS The Collection Cotton & Verbena Hugo Boss
1.2977316566213
Vetyver Parfums de Nicolaï
1.2973935903603
Megumi Ayala Moriel
1.2972136084227
Silver Man Benetton
1.2971253795035
L'Homme Infini Divine
1.2958083313049
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.2955668554042
Déclaration Edition Limitée Cartier
1.2955185602241
Gentile Maria Candida Gentile
1.295132198783
Hellstone Lush
1.2948392890949
Vetiver Etro
1.2941846746837
Vince Camuto Femme Vince Camuto
1.2863418373418
Bois Bleu Robert Piguet
1.2862935421617
Terre d’Hermes Flacon H 2009 Hermes
1.2862935421617
Eau Fraîche Molinard
1.2861969518014
Racing Ferrari
1.2861486566213
New Experience Man Tom Tailor
1.2861003614411
B-Cool Police
1.2859071807206
Mayor Energy Novaya Zarya
1.2859071807206
Courage EDT Förster and Johnsen
1.285714
Patchouli Man Bjork and Berries
1.285714
Orient Al-Rehab

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