Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: Woods and Mosses

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Vetiver

1.5779590731879
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5063335679099
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Dior
1.5041754632888
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5026272577997
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.5016420361248
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5014543748534
Vetiver Zara
1.5014543748534
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5011728829463
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.5009852216749
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.5007975604035
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.5007975604035
The Maj House of Matriarch
1.5007506450856
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5007037297678
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5005629838142
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.5005160684964
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.5004691531785
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.5004691531785
Athunis Sigilli
1.5004222378607
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.5003753225428
Cologne Intense Borsalino
1.500328407225
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5002814919071
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5002814919071
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.5002345765893
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.5002345765893
Mix 11 Platinum J
1.5002345765893
Vetiver Jalaine
1.5001876612714
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5001407459536
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5000938306357
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.5000938306357
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.5000938306357
Agua de Vetiver Angel Schlesser
1.5000469153179
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5000469153179
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.5
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4999061693643
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4999061693643
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.4998123387286
Saturnalia Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.487752713582
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.4837302540464
Highwayman Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4752963786066
Woman Donna Karan
1.4742000684964
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4673707297678
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.4618194919071
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.435721306357
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.4349279713817
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.4286179153179
Millennium Hope Jivago
1.428571
Black Romane
1.4252894048792
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.418933407225
Vetiver Racinettes Ayala Moriel
1.416995407225
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.4157165280319
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.4156192216749
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.4134349692705
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.4094402416139
onda Vero Profumo
1.4082099153179
Blood Kiss Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4014074595355
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.4004222378607
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.4002814919071
Rendezvous Night Urban Retreat
1.4001407459536
Sweet Tyranny Smell Bent
1.4000469153179
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.3882698829463
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3878007297678
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3859113333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.384943407225
Lavande & Vetiver Jeanne en Provence
1.3828690684964
Sandalo del Kashmir & Vetiver Tesori d`Oriente
1.3821447037298
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3817964757213
No. 17 Vetiver & Bergamot Rituals
1.3763605442177
The Natural Gap
1.3757506450856
1902 Vetiver Parfums Berdoues
1.3750938306357
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3724078221909
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.3686086612714
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.3640582378607
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3564596488388
Woods Abercrombie & Fitch
1.3550991046212
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.3533632378607
Freedom Sport Tommy Hilfiger
1.3507975604035
Mazzolari Mazzolari
1.3505160684964
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3504691531785
Ellie Ellie Perfume
1.3485508707483
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.3460488505747
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.3455786450856
Cereus No.5 Cereus
1.3445168543279
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.3357640921886
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3347533574947
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3346434907342
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3339428991321
That's Amore! Lui Gai Mattiolo
1.3338959838142
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3336144919071
Entice Him Ajmal
1.3336144919071
Brass and Bulldog Botanical Cologne Esscentual Alchemy
1.3335206612714
Andy Roddick Parlux
1.3335206612714
Sunrise Urban Men Franck Olivier
1.3334737459536
Stra-Vivara Emilio Pucci
1.333333
Trapeze Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.333333
Caspian Angela Flanders
1.3332391693643
Aurora Fuoco Micaelangelo
1.331080500821
Eau Sauvage Parfum Dior
1.3267120236922
Vetiver Etro
1.3234723910392
Silver Man Benetton
1.3221427285949
Sel de Vetiver The Different Company
1.3202814919071
Bon Zai Ayala Moriel
1.3183696612714
Divine: Eros Opus Oils
1.3171026288998
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.3137197982641
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.313438306357
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3127666514192
Vetiver Extraordinaire Frederic Malle
1.3108141531785
Tamboti Wood Susanne Lang
1.3094836774572
Just Cavalli Him Roberto Cavalli
1.3087710523106
Up To You for Him Avon
1.3082080684964
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.3062715280319
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.306268773399
Absinth Nasomatto
1.3053901893033
08 Seylon Odin
1.3043949153179
Cowgirl Grass D.S. & Durga
1.304348
Vanillaman Neil Morris
1.303968306357
Cuba Green Cuba Paris
1.3035290361248
Time For Peace Kenzo
1.3031704757213
Eva Santa Maria Novella
1.3008956300727
Narciso Rodriguez For Her Narciso Rodriguez
1.300328407225
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3002814919071
Wood Portland General Store
1.3001843823598
Comme Des Garcons Series 4 Cologne : Vettiveru Comme des Garcons
1.3001407459536
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.3000469153179
Oxbow for Men Oxbow
1.3
Nononsense 1 Nico Uytterhaegen
1.2992205280319
Vetyver Lanvin
1.2977192378607
Vetyver Parfums de Nicolaï
1.2973908306357
Megumi Ayala Moriel
1.297184713582
L'Homme Infini Divine
1.2956662054891
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.2955254595355
Déclaration Edition Limitée Cartier
1.2953377982641
Hellstone Lush
1.2910790523106
Vince Camuto Femme Vince Camuto
1.2889694098053
Red Vetyver Montale
1.2870276288998
BOSS The Collection Cotton & Verbena Hugo Boss
1.2868166863711
Hermessence Vetiver Tonka Hermes
1.2862769838142
Terre d’Hermes Flacon H 2009 Hermes
1.2861362378607
New Experience Man Tom Tailor
1.2860893225428
B-Cool Police
1.2859016612714
Precious One Angela Flanders
1.2859016612714
Mayor Energy Novaya Zarya
1.2859016612714
Courage EDT Förster and Johnsen
1.285714
Orient Al-Rehab
1.285714
Patchouli Man Bjork and Berries
1.2856201693643
Gone with the Smell The Fragrance Kitchen
1.2816669652827
Guerlain L'Homme L'Eau Boisée Guerlain
1.2811728829463
Notte Bianca Linari

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