Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: Woods and Mosses

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Vetiver

1.5800428045011
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5068637064015
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Christian Dior
1.5042956529859
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5027081290564
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.5016342158099
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5015408320493
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5014474482887
Vetiver Zara
1.5012606807676
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.5011672970071
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.5010272213662
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.5008871457254
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.5007937619648
The Maj House of Matriarch
1.5007470700845
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5007470700845
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5005603025634
Athunis Sigilli
1.5005603025634
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.5005136106831
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.5005136106831
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.5004669188028
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.5003735350423
Cologne Intense Borsalino
1.500326843162
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5002801512817
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.5002801512817
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5002334594014
Mix 11 Platinum J
1.5002334594014
Vetiver Jalaine
1.5002334594014
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.5001867675211
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5001400756408
Agua de Vetiver Angel Schlesser
1.5001400756408
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5000933837606
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.5000933837606
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.5000466918803
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000466918803
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.4999066162394
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4999066162394
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.4998132324789
Saturnalia Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4837776162394
Highwayman Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4752295773451
Woman Donna Karan
1.4741976106831
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4674607619648
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.450326843162
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4423432970071
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.4359036051268
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.4324464260634
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.4289772411636
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4286176918803
Millennium Hope Jivago
1.428571
Black Romane
1.418931843162
Vetiver Racinettes Ayala Moriel
1.4170872269225
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.4162030917962
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.4157073670916
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.4156145294859
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.4094250478592
onda Vero Profumo
1.4082096918803
Blood Kiss Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4014007564085
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.4004669188028
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.4002801512817
Rendezvous Night Urban Retreat
1.4001400756408
Sweet Tyranny Smell Bent
1.4000466918803
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.3877973782042
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3856143333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.3848951512817
Lavande & Vetiver Jeanne en Provence
1.3791719033945
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3763540645282
The Natural Gap
1.3757470700845
1902 Vetiver Parfums Berdoues
1.3750933837606
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3726869781482
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.3712104538451
No. 17 Vetiver & Bergamot Rituals
1.3686077675211
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.3640562269225
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3563961991409
Woods Abercrombie & Fitch
1.3512096962693
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.3510052858944
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.3507937619648
Mazzolari Mazzolari
1.3505136106831
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3504669188028
Ellie Ellie Perfume
1.3461312858944
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.3455750700845
Cereus No.5 Cereus
1.3384224149507
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.335737949993
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3344466619508
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3340333782042
That's Amore! Lui Gai Mattiolo
1.3338933025634
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3336131512817
Entice Him Ajmal
1.3336131512817
Brass and Bulldog Botanical Cologne Esscentual Alchemy
1.3335197675211
Sunrise Urban Men Franck Olivier
1.3335197675211
Andy Roddick Parlux
1.3334730756408
Stra-Vivara Emilio Pucci
1.333333
Caspian Angela Flanders
1.333333
Trapeze Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3332396162394
Aurora Fuoco Micaelangelo
1.333213856796
Eau Sauvage Parfum Christian Dior
1.3331610290423
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3266883393099
Vetiver Etro
1.3255603025634
Sandalo del Kashmir & Vetiver Tesori d`Oriente
1.3234681457254
Silver Man Benetton
1.3202801512817
Bon Zai Ayala Moriel
1.3185661414297
Vetiver Extraordinaire Frederic Malle
1.3183687675211
Divine: Eros Opus Oils
1.3170963726479
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.314659040155
Sel de Vetiver The Different Company
1.3137606807676
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.3134338376056
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3126867675211
Tobacco Mucho Stephanie de Saint-Aignan
1.3108119188028
Tamboti Wood Susanne Lang
1.3087659132465
Up To You for Him Avon
1.3082056106831
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.3062312358874
Absinth Nasomatto
1.3054735183733
08 Seylon Odin
1.3043946918803
Cowgirl Grass D.S. & Durga
1.304348
Vanillaman Neil Morris
1.3039638376056
Cuba Green Cuba Paris
1.3036145995704
Time For Peace Kenzo
1.3011469527478
Narciso Rodriguez For Her Narciso Rodriguez
1.3004669188028
Freedom Sport Tommy Hilfiger
1.300326843162
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3002801512817
Wood Portland General Store
1.3001977820423
Comme Des Garcons Series 4 Cologne : Vettiveru Comme des Garcons
1.3001400756408
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.3000466918803
Oxbow for Men Oxbow
1.3
Nononsense 1 Nico Uytterhaegen
1.2992580589718
Vetyver Lanvin
1.2977172269225
Vetyver Nicolai Parfumeur Createur
1.2973903837606
Megumi Ayala Moriel
1.2969234649577
Just Cavalli Him Roberto Cavalli
1.295612140169
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.2955187564085
Déclaration Edition Limitée Cartier
1.2952852970071
Hellstone Lush
1.2922373670916
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.2912139888873
Vince Camuto Femme Vince Camuto
1.2906879888873
Windsor Eau de Toilette D.R.Harris
1.2888992504086
Red Vetyver Montale
1.2870213726479
BOSS The Collection Cotton & Verbena Hugo Boss
1.2866527922678
Hermessence Vetiver Tonka Hermes
1.2863676863239
Terre d’Hermes Flacon H 2009 Hermes
1.2861342269225
New Experience Man Tom Tailor
1.2860875350423
B-Cool Police
1.2859007675211
Courage EDT Förster and Johnsen
1.2859007675211
Precious One Angela Flanders
1.2858540756408
Mayor Energy Novaya Zarya
1.285714
Orient Al-Rehab
1.285714
Patchouli Man Bjork and Berries
1.2856206162394
Gone with the Smell The Fragrance Kitchen
1.2829070645282
L'Homme Infini Divine
1.2823127721903
Guerlain L'Homme L'Eau Boisée Guerlain

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