Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: Woods and Mosses

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Vetiver

1.5718905860314
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5087558542048
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Christian Dior
1.5045204642639
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5023213194869
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5012217470984
Vetiver Zara
1.5011810221951
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.5011810221951
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5010588474852
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.5008959478721
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5008959478721
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.5008552229688
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5007737731623
Intense Vetyver Zara
1.5006515984525
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.5006515984525
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.5005294237426
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.5005294237426
Divine Attraction Initio Parfums Prives
1.5004886988393
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5002036245164
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5001628996131
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5001628996131
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.5001628996131
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5001628996131
Vitrum Sammarco
1.5001628996131
Balafre Vert Lancome
1.5001628996131
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.5001221747098
Verde Citro Natura
1.5001221747098
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5001221747098
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5001221747098
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5000814498066
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000814498066
Vetiver Proximity Axe
1.5000407249033
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000407249033
Vetiver Bourbon The Merchant of Venice
1.5000407249033
A Day in Grasse Arts&Scents
1.5
Black Shot Pull and Bear
1.5
Vetiver Candora
1.5
Land of Fashion Vicini
1.4999592750967
Vovo Natura
1.4999185501934
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4999185501934
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.488511267359
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.4864877731623
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.4721158880065
Woman Donna Karan
1.4545042750967
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4499394080635
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.449741193036
Mirror Mirror Collection - Miroir Des Vanites Thierry Mugler
1.4380294237426
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.4365485984525
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4349458996131
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.4292225984525
Athunis Sigilli
1.4287746245164
Notte d'amore Pantheon Roma
1.4286524498066
Very "V" Saint Charles Shave
1.4286524498066
Satin-perla Dr. Taffi
1.4286117249033
Java Wood Premiere Note
1.428571
Evening Rose (Вечерняя Роза) Apple Parfums
1.428571
Black Romane
1.4253665241295
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4231991747098
Vetiver Jalaine
1.4170335241295
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.416667
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.4160837210344
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.4136177692934
Eau de Cartier Vetiver Bleu Cartier
1.411274122582
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.4090295163918
Woods Abercrombie & Fitch
1.4044993494197
Our Story For Him Avon
1.4003665241295
Essence No. 6 Vetiver Elie Saab
1.4002443494197
Helen Carnate Smell Bent
1.4001221747098
Swiss Army Unlimited Snowpower Victorinox Swiss Army
1.4000407249033
Bayrhum Vetiver Creed
1.4
Varens Vétiver Ulric de Varens
1.3980467470984
The Natural Gap
1.3953478735492
Eau Fraîche Molinard
1.3938223905518
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.3889297249033
Amarcord Atelier Flou
1.3887259961311
Vetiver Veritas James Heeley
1.3866512451639
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.3856831781715
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.3846557249033
Aube Drift Parfum de Terre
1.3829231486459
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.3811018957442
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.3800837731623
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.3799615984525
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3796973333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.3786652412951
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.3776430743229
Capim Cheiroso Companhia da Terra
1.3767091409082
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.3762217470984
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.375733048259
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3754072490328
Vetiver Castle Forbes
1.3752443494197
Lichen & Vetiver Voluspa
1.3750814498066
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3750407249033
Baron Lui Niche
1.3750407249033
Vetivier & Chocolat Hildegard Braukmann
1.375
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.3721595819589
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3720805984525
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3706957992262
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3704921747098
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.3687480366524
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3642875984525
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.3638396245164
Madeiras Amazonia Viva
1.362122096518
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.3584810472409
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3540405723885
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.3530631747098
Conviction Elysees Fashion
1.3525215866422
Eau Sauvage Parfum Christian Dior
1.3516360743229
Loup des Steppes Sama
1.3498575984525
Sultan Vetiver Nishane
1.3481925241295
Vetiver Matale Parfumerie Generale
1.3480887866015
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3477829961311
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.3466019739361
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.346069193036
onda Vero Profumo
1.3445644980656
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.3436431187131
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.3418702490328
The Botanist MiN New York
1.3415777953574
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.3402040325799
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.3389914237426
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3342696727754
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3338624237426
Castaña Cloon Keen Atelier
1.3336587992262
Spice Blend/ Vetiver April Aromatics
1.3336587992262
Shaded Diane Pernet
1.3335366245164
Otto Kern Commitment Man Otto Kern
1.3333737249033
Bal de Bain Regency Cosmetics
1.333333
Unisekt Arae Nico Uytterhaegen
1.333333
Caspian Angela Flanders
1.333333
Tasman in Grey Code Deco
1.3264949883934
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.3259882490328
Lavande & Vetiver Jeanne en Provence
1.3253771969049
Aquae Nobilis Profumum Roma
1.3248534237426
Fig & Vetiver Anthousa
1.3247719739361
Vetyver Nicolai Parfumeur Createur
1.3222376245164
01 06 Lime Absolue Fragrance Republic
1.3205336467115
Herrera for Men Sensual Vetiver Carolina Herrera
1.3202850743229
New Experience Man Tom Tailor
1.3190904642639
Vetiver Etro
1.3185485241295
Precious One Angela Flanders
1.3182634498066
Divine: Eros Opus Oils
1.3161555241295
Adone Re Profumo
1.3160333494197
Caffe Delle Vergini Hilde Soliani
1.3160141631032
Vetiver Pour Elle Guerlain
1.3158297249033
Enygma Onyrico
1.3150142490328
Water Bath Priprioca Natura
1.3136602490328
Entice Him Ajmal
1.3129197055589
Comme Des Garcons Series 4 Cologne : Vettiveru Comme des Garcons
1.3125814498066
Tobacco Mucho Stephanie de Saint-Aignan
1.3111122712279
No. 17 Vetiver & Bergamot Rituals
1.310842170841
L`Homme Sport Roger & Gallet
1.3105893494197
Courage EDT Förster and Johnsen
1.3071575375687
Red Vetyver Montale

Popular brands and perfumes: