Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: Woods and Mosses

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Vetiver

1.5890528439412
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5077716735897
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Christian Dior
1.5041538255393
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5016972620483
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5013846085131
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5013846085131
Vetiver Zara
1.5012952789316
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.5012506141409
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.5009826253964
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.5008486310242
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5008486310242
Intense Vetyver Zara
1.5008039662334
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5006699718612
The Maj House of Matriarch
1.5006253070704
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.5005359774889
Athunis Sigilli
1.5005359774889
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.5004913126982
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.5004466479075
Cologne Intense Borsalino
1.5003126535352
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5003126535352
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5002679887445
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.5002679887445
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.5002679887445
Capim Cheiroso Companhia da Terra
1.5002233239537
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.5002233239537
Vetiver Jalaine
1.500178659163
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5001339943722
Zara Black Tag Zara
1.5001339943722
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.5001339943722
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5001339943722
Verde Citro Natura
1.5001339943722
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5000893295815
Conviction Elysees Fashion
1.5000893295815
Agua de Vetiver Angel Schlesser
1.5000446647907
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5000446647907
Black Shot Pull and Bear
1.5
Vetiver Candora
1.5
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.4999553352093
Highwayman Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4999553352093
Vitrum Sammarco
1.4999106704185
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4999106704185
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.499821340837
Saturnalia Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4757638030283
Woman Donna Karan
1.4674709662334
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.4623866310242
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.4621186422797
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4619846479075
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4445779943722
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.4445779943722
179-001 Informal Scent Spectator
1.4422926197686
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.4363702057707
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.4360782789316
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.4338289456429
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4321306535352
Vetiver Racinettes Ayala Moriel
1.4287049943722
Madeiras Amazonia Viva
1.4287049943722
Our Story For Him Avon
1.4286156647907
Very "V" Saint Charles Shave
1.428571
Black Romane
1.4285263352093
Julie Arno Sorel
1.4170689831167
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.4167563295815
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.4156166253964
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.4147555072134
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.4094658649337
onda Vero Profumo
1.4029704425387
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.4015186028853
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.4005806422797
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.4004913126982
Blood Kiss Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4002679887445
Rendezvous Night Urban Retreat
1.400178659163
Sweet Tyranny Smell Bent
1.4000446647907
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.3926439437224
The Natural Gap
1.3924115916298
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.3878563014427
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3860313333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.3850169831167
Lavande & Vetiver Jeanne en Provence
1.3846596647907
Aube Drift Parfum de Terre
1.3779555529501
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3757146366519
1902 Vetiver Parfums Berdoues
1.3756253070704
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3754019831167
Aromatic Blends: Vetiver & Black Tea Kiehl`s
1.375357318326
Water Bath Priprioca Natura
1.3750893295815
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3748454161419
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.3709059774889
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3685549943722
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.3648605524141
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.3575896479075
New Experience Man Tom Tailor
1.3562461945152
Woods Abercrombie & Fitch
1.3510308930725
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.3505359774889
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3504466479075
Ellie Ellie Perfume
1.3457659606057
No. 17 Vetiver & Bergamot Rituals
1.3455426366519
Cereus No.5 Cereus
1.3383354565635
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.3352827274108
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.335004793202
Eau Sauvage Parfum Christian Dior
1.3340923014427
That's Amore! Lui Gai Mattiolo
1.3340271920586
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3336456535352
Mix 11 Platinum J
1.3336009887445
Sunrise Urban Men Franck Olivier
1.3336009887445
Andy Roddick Parlux
1.333511659163
Loup des Steppes Sama
1.333511659163
Ombre Fumee Evody Parfums
1.3334669943722
Stra-Vivara Emilio Pucci
1.3333776647907
Tasman in Grey Code Deco
1.333333
Caspian Angela Flanders
1.333333
Trapeze Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3332436704185
Aurora Fuoco Micaelangelo
1.3327667692617
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3288595585779
Vetiver Extraordinaire Frederic Malle
1.3264889831167
Entice Him Ajmal
1.3255359774889
Sandalo del Kashmir & Vetiver Tesori d`Oriente
1.3236082901871
Silver Man Benetton
1.322456563491
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.3202679887445
Bon Zai Ayala Moriel
1.318360659163
Divine: Eros Opus Oils
1.3169949493501
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.3160569887445
Masculin 2 Vetyver Bourjois
1.315967659163
Derby Club House Belmont Armaf
1.3155083383805
Absinth Nasomatto
1.314008499129
Sel de Vetiver The Different Company
1.3137952789316
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.3133486310242
Modoc Xerjoff
1.313074340837
Just Cavalli Him Roberto Cavalli
1.3130359774889
Aurum Natura
1.312678659163
Tobacco Mucho Stephanie de Saint-Aignan
1.3108450425655
Comme Des Garcons Series 4 Cologne : Vettiveru Comme des Garcons
1.3108363126982
Tamboti Wood Susanne Lang
1.3108363126982
Veti Vert Miller Harris
1.3108192789316
Aquae Nobilis Profumum Roma
1.3087192901871
Up To You for Him Avon
1.3081833126982
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.3077813295815
Megumi Ayala Moriel
1.305547467819
Vetiver Etro
1.3053306253964
Chakra 1 Motivation Aveda
1.3043926647907
Cowgirl Grass D.S. & Durga
1.304348
Vanillaman Neil Morris
1.3040126253964
Cuba Green Cuba Paris
1.3034949324668
Time For Peace Kenzo
1.3021439099558
08 Seylon Odin
1.3015632676761
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.3005806422797
Freedom Sport Tommy Hilfiger
1.3004466479075
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3003126535352
Scent Essence - Romantic Bouquet Avon
1.3003126535352
Wood Portland General Store

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