Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: Woods and Mosses

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Vetiver

1.5773433318049
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5062568658356
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Dior
1.5042030854468
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5026746907389
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.5015283947079
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5014806323733
Vetiver Zara
1.5014806323733
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5012418207002
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.5010985336963
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.5010030090271
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.500764197354
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5007164350193
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.5007164350193
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5005731480155
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.5005253856809
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.5005253856809
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.5004776233462
Athunis Sigilli
1.5004776233462
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.5004298610116
Supercilium O`Driu
1.500382098677
Cologne Intense Borsalino
1.5002865740077
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5002865740077
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.5002388116731
Mix 11 Platinum J
1.5002388116731
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.5002388116731
Vetiver Jalaine
1.5001432870039
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5000955246692
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.5000955246692
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5000955246692
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.5000955246692
Agua de Vetiver Angel Schlesser
1.5000477623346
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5000477623346
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000477623346
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000477623346
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.4999044753308
Highwayman Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4999044753308
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4999044753308
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.4998089506615
Saturnalia Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4792162466925
The Maj House of Matriarch
1.4742571480155
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4710611347853
Woman Donna Karan
1.4673834350193
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.4618245740077
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4528487491045
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.428571
Black Romane
1.4250955246692
Blood Kiss Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4226075689927
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.420165053064
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.4189393363424
Vetiver Racinettes Ayala Moriel
1.4173356726847
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.4170013363424
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.4157034933849
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.4156370090271
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.4013851077041
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.4003343363424
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.4002865740077
Rendezvous Night Urban Retreat
1.4001432870039
Sweet Tyranny Smell Bent
1.4000477623346
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.3952137894159
onda Vero Profumo
1.3882910583656
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3877179103501
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3862623333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.3851881480155
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3848060493385
Lavande & Vetiver Jeanne en Provence
1.3828783856809
Sandalo del Kashmir & Vetiver Tesori d`Oriente
1.3826310325261
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3818117220232
No. 17 Vetiver & Bergamot Rituals
1.3763851077041
The Natural Gap
1.375764197354
1902 Vetiver Parfums Berdoues
1.3750955246692
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3744572491761
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.3724237803888
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.3686120493385
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.3640658610116
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3563798880928
Woods Abercrombie & Fitch
1.3533708610116
Freedom Sport Tommy Hilfiger
1.3508119596886
Mazzolari Mazzolari
1.3505253856809
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3504776233462
Ellie Ellie Perfume
1.3474202561494
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.345592197354
Cereus No.5 Cereus
1.3383480451354
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.3357676684816
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3348108706596
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3346366823327
Sel de Vetiver The Different Company
1.3339539103501
That's Amore! Lui Gai Mattiolo
1.3336673363424
Me Myself & I Ego Facto
1.3336195740077
Brass and Bulldog Botanical Cologne Esscentual Alchemy
1.3336195740077
Entice Him Ajmal
1.3335240493385
Sunrise Urban Men Franck Olivier
1.3335240493385
Andy Roddick Parlux
1.3334762870039
Stra-Vivara Emilio Pucci
1.333333
Trapeze Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3332374753308
Aurora Fuoco Micaelangelo
1.332655131824
Eau Sauvage Parfum Dior
1.3276015523714
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3268973321393
Vetiver Etro
1.3260800180542
08 Seylon Odin
1.3202865740077
Bon Zai Ayala Moriel
1.3183730493385
Divine: Eros Opus Oils
1.3182726414004
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.3171263453694
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.313761309882
Absinth Nasomatto
1.313646296031
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.3133597220232
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3108226233462
Tamboti Wood Susanne Lang
1.3102883508143
Vetiver Extraordinaire Frederic Malle
1.309476901323
Just Cavalli Him Roberto Cavalli
1.3087905336963
Up To You for Him Avon
1.3082173856809
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.3063062557195
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.3043957623346
Cowgirl Grass D.S. & Durga
1.304348
Vanillaman Neil Morris
1.3039852466925
Cuba Green Cuba Paris
1.3035109193772
Time For Peace Kenzo
1.3031857220232
Eva Santa Maria Novella
1.3024953878302
Narciso Rodriguez For Her Narciso Rodriguez
1.3004061125281
Comme Des Garcons Series 4 Cologne : Vettiveru Comme des Garcons
1.3003343363424
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3001910493385
Wood Portland General Store
1.3001432870039
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.3000477623346
Oxbow for Men Oxbow
1.3
Nononsense 1 Nico Uytterhaegen
1.2992074933849
Vetyver Lanvin
1.2985865830348
BOSS The Collection Cotton & Verbena Hugo Boss
1.2977268610116
Vetyver Parfums de Nicolaï
1.2973925246692
Megumi Ayala Moriel
1.2972034843578
Silver Man Benetton
1.2971120583656
L'Homme Infini Divine
1.2957896817118
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.2955508700387
Déclaration Edition Limitée Cartier
1.2955031077041
Gentile Maria Candida Gentile
1.295264296031
Hellstone Lush
1.2912418207002
Vince Camuto Femme Vince Camuto
1.2862871480155
Terre d’Hermes Flacon H 2009 Hermes
1.2861916233462
Racing Ferrari
1.2861438610116
New Experience Man Tom Tailor
1.286096098677
B-Cool Police
1.2859050493385
Precious One Angela Flanders
1.2859050493385
Mayor Energy Novaya Zarya
1.2859050493385
Courage EDT Förster and Johnsen
1.285714
Patchouli Man Bjork and Berries
1.285714
Orient Al-Rehab
1.2856184753308
Gone with the Smell The Fragrance Kitchen
1.2846943785165
Hermessence Vetiver Tonka Hermes
1.2837830283231
Guerlain L'Homme L'Eau Boisée Guerlain
1.2826633237331
Red Vetyver Montale

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