Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: WOODS AND MOSSES

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Vetiver Perfumes

1.5731579808774
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5089238845144
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Christian Dior
1.5050993625797
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.502174728159
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5016497937758
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5014248218973
Vetiver Zara
1.5010498687664
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.5010498687664
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.5009748781402
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.500862392201
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.5008248968879
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5007874015748
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5006749156355
Intense Vetyver Zara
1.5006374203225
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.5006374203225
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5002249718785
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5001874765654
Black Linen Joseph Abboud
1.5001874765654
Vetyver Outremer
1.5001499812523
Verde Citro Natura
1.5001499812523
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.5001499812523
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5001499812523
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.5001124859393
Color Me Blue Milton Lloyd
1.5001124859393
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5001124859393
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5001124859393
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000749906262
Eau de Vetyver Le Galion
1.5000749906262
Eau Intense Rodier
1.5000749906262
Vetivert Hové Parfumeur, Ltd.
1.5000749906262
Black Shot Pull and Bear
1.5000749906262
Portrait of New York - Vetiver Ralph Lauren
1.5000749906262
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000749906262
Vetivert Bourbon French Parfums
1.5000749906262
Vetiver Proximity Axe
1.5000374953131
Vetiver Bourbon The Merchant of Venice
1.5000374953131
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000374953131
Black Network Lomani
1.5000374953131
Vetiver & Petitgrain Splash Tauerville
1.5000374953131
A Day in Grasse Arts&Scents
1.5
Rudo Khalis
1.5
Vetiver Candora
1.4999625046869
Vovo Natura
1.4999250093738
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4999250093738
01 Sweet Wood Desire Body Conjure
1.4999250093738
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.4865388968879
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.4655284484439
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4567590352456
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4556545500562
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.454994943757
Vitrum Sammarco
1.4545075046869
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4531863625797
Woman Donna Karan
1.4516786062992
Eau de Cartier Vetiver Bleu Cartier
1.4451939062617
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4417759250094
Madrona House of Matriarch
1.4379124484439
Symphonie-Passion Unum
1.4297333547057
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.428571
Black Romane
1.4249892609674
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.4231894859393
Vetiver Jalaine
1.4200813547057
The Natural Gap
1.4181960547432
Woods 2010 Edition Abercrombie & Fitch
1.4170044578178
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.4167044953131
Legni Nature`s
1.416667
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.4081944015748
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.4080819156355
Athunis Sigilli
1.4077069625047
Aktis Korres
1.4051598968879
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.404704943757
Divine Attraction Initio Parfums Prives
1.4039482515936
Vetiver Veritas James Heeley
1.4019122609674
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.4010123734533
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.4002624671916
Our Story For Him Avon
1.4002249718785
Helen Carnate Smell Bent
1.4001874765654
Argentum Pecksniff`s
1.4001499812523
Legendary Penthouse
1.4000374953131
Club Edition Monte-Carlo Sergio Tacchini
1.4
Vetyver Dolce Il Profumiere
1.4
Arancia MPF
1.3990756437945
Mirror Mirror Collection - Miroir Des Vanites Thierry Mugler
1.3976356906637
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.3946313809524
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.3936069062617
Essence No. 6 Vetiver Elie Saab
1.3914539812523
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.3908064296963
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.3899763640795
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3888728766404
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.3854398968879
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.3847274859393
Amarcord Atelier Flou
1.3846524953131
Aube Drift Parfum de Terre
1.384615
Energy Fusion for Men Avon
1.3827279531309
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.3806485500562
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.3803953333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.3799474203225
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3796153453318
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3794224859393
Java Wood Premiere Note
1.3776954578178
Capim Cheiroso Companhia da Terra
1.3764248218973
Sultan Vetiver Nishane
1.3750749906262
Lichen & Vetiver Voluspa
1.3750749906262
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3750374953131
Vetivier & Chocolat Hildegard Braukmann
1.375
Chernoe Domino Severnoye Siyanie
1.375
Baron Lui Niche
1.375
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.3720289250094
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3712383580802
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3706699625047
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3705574765654
Vetiver Natura
1.3704824859393
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.3643202969629
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3641984296963
Rain Day Derek Lam 10 Crosby
1.3638609718785
Madeiras Amazonia Viva
1.3634681484814
onda Vero Profumo
1.3621933078365
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.3614360704912
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3612984765654
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.3596489156355
L'Eau de Paille Serge Lutens
1.3577804203225
Eau Fraîche Molinard
1.3573304765654
Notte d'amore Pantheon Roma
1.3545567555306
Eau Sauvage Parfum Christian Dior
1.3540658593926
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.3532784578178
Terre de Cèdre Acorelle
1.352941
Vetiver Indien Paul Emilien
1.3522644484439
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.3515759718785
Loup des Steppes Sama
1.3493619343832
Vetyver Nicolai Parfumeur Createur
1.3478037937758
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.3476907690289
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.34744812036
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.3460739062617
Emotional Rescue Mark Buxton
1.3444249156355
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.3434651016123
Nirvana Rose Elizabeth and James
1.3397242422197
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.3389869343832
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3373408031496
Aquae Nobilis Profumum Roma
1.335150288339
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.3342328875141
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3341204015748
Eau du Kashmir Rituals
1.333782943757
Castaña Cloon Keen Atelier
1.3337454484439
Aqua Colonia Vetyver Florascent
1.3337079531309
Shaded Diane Pernet
1.3336329625047
179-001 Informal Scent Spectator
1.3336329625047
Spice Blend/ Vetiver April Aromatics
1.3335204765654
Sinai Kesling
1.3334454859393
Strictly Night Jil Sander
1.3334454859393
White Leather N°17 The Master Perfumer
1.3334079906262
A & F 1892 Cobalt Abercrombie & Fitch
1.3334079906262
Eau Inexplicable Thirdman

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