Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: Woods and Mosses

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Vetiver

1.5772788389571
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5063532401525
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Dior
1.5041884323968
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5026354181373
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.5016471363358
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5014588921832
Vetiver Zara
1.5014588921832
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5011765259542
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.5009882818015
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.5008000376488
The Maj House of Matriarch
1.5007529766107
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5007529766107
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.5007059155725
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.500564732458
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.5005176714198
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.5004706103817
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.5004706103817
Athunis Sigilli
1.5004235493435
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.5003764883053
Cologne Intense Borsalino
1.5003294272672
Supercilium O`Driu
1.500282366229
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.500282366229
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5002353051908
Mix 11 Platinum J
1.5002353051908
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.5002353051908
Vetiver Jalaine
1.5001882441527
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5001411831145
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5000941220763
Agua de Vetiver Angel Schlesser
1.5000941220763
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.5000941220763
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.5000470610382
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000470610382
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.5
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4999058779237
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.4999058779237
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4998117558473
Saturnalia Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4877566480305
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.4837298168855
Highwayman Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4753565544732
Woman Donna Karan
1.4742016714198
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4673729155725
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.461820366229
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.458498127206
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.4357242207633
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.4286180610382
Millennium Hope Jivago
1.428571
Black Romane
1.4245528092146
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4189344272672
Vetiver Racinettes Ayala Moriel
1.4169964272672
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.4157225025648
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.4156222818015
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.4148502326698
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.4094501505953
onda Vero Profumo
1.4082100610382
Blood Kiss Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.401411831145
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.4004235493435
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.400282366229
Rendezvous Night Urban Retreat
1.4001411831145
Sweet Tyranny Smell Bent
1.4000470610382
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.3882735259542
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3878029155725
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3860813333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.385179732458
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3849444272672
Lavande & Vetiver Jeanne en Provence
1.3828706714198
Sandalo del Kashmir & Vetiver Tesori d`Oriente
1.3823449035719
Vetiver Guerlain
1.381799098687
No. 17 Vetiver & Bergamot Rituals
1.3763647701068
The Natural Gap
1.3757529766107
1902 Vetiver Parfums Berdoues
1.3750941220763
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3713869486093
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.3686092441527
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.3640595493435
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3564705778625
Woods Abercrombie & Fitch
1.3533645493435
Freedom Sport Tommy Hilfiger
1.3508000376488
Mazzolari Mazzolari
1.3505176714198
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3504706103817
Ellie Ellie Perfume
1.3485030413667
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.3461030519083
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.3455809766107
Cereus No.5 Cereus
1.344532592122
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.3423237467175
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.3356870193891
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3347957621065
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3347275647325
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3339447934962
That's Amore! Lui Gai Mattiolo
1.333615366229
Entice Him Ajmal
1.333615366229
Brass and Bulldog Botanical Cologne Esscentual Alchemy
1.3335212441527
Sunrise Urban Men Franck Olivier
1.3335212441527
Andy Roddick Parlux
1.3334741831145
Stra-Vivara Emilio Pucci
1.333333
Caspian Angela Flanders
1.333333
Trapeze Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3332388779237
Aurora Fuoco Micaelangelo
1.3309038955716
Eau Sauvage Parfum Dior
1.3267274700456
Vetiver Etro
1.3234751597252
Silver Man Benetton
1.320282366229
Bon Zai Ayala Moriel
1.3183702441527
Divine: Eros Opus Oils
1.3171067090687
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.3170650530378
Sel de Vetiver The Different Company
1.3137235869923
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.3133941597252
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3127281945033
Vetiver Extraordinaire Frederic Malle
1.3108156103817
Tamboti Wood Susanne Lang
1.3094354506565
Just Cavalli Him Roberto Cavalli
1.3087744038778
Up To You for Him Avon
1.3082096714198
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.306293254412
Absinth Nasomatto
1.3062775025648
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.3053967467175
08 Seylon Odin
1.3043950610382
Cowgirl Grass D.S. & Durga
1.304348
Vanillaman Neil Morris
1.3039712207633
Cuba Green Cuba Paris
1.3034870752977
Time For Peace Kenzo
1.303173098687
Eva Santa Maria Novella
1.3012400448492
Narciso Rodriguez For Her Narciso Rodriguez
1.3003294272672
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3002060946868
Comme Des Garcons Series 4 Cologne : Vettiveru Comme des Garcons
1.3001882441527
Wood Portland General Store
1.3001411831145
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.3000470610382
Oxbow for Men Oxbow
1.3
Nononsense 1 Nico Uytterhaegen
1.2992265025648
Vetyver Lanvin
1.2986147090687
BOSS The Collection Cotton & Verbena Hugo Boss
1.2977205493435
Vetyver Parfums de Nicolaï
1.2973911220763
Megumi Ayala Moriel
1.2971886480305
L'Homme Infini Divine
1.2956710142595
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.295529831145
Déclaration Edition Limitée Cartier
1.2953415869923
Hellstone Lush
1.291129464916
Vince Camuto Femme Vince Camuto
1.2883282270224
Red Vetyver Montale
1.2867724072662
Hermessence Vetiver Tonka Hermes
1.286278732458
Terre d’Hermes Flacon H 2009 Hermes
1.2861375493435
New Experience Man Tom Tailor
1.2860904883053
B-Cool Police
1.2859022441527
Mayor Energy Novaya Zarya
1.2859022441527
Precious One Angela Flanders
1.2859022441527
Courage EDT Förster and Johnsen
1.285714
Patchouli Man Bjork and Berries
1.285714
Orient Al-Rehab
1.2856198779237
Gone with the Smell The Fragrance Kitchen
1.2817427398466
Guerlain L'Homme L'Eau Boisée Guerlain
1.2811765259542
Notte Bianca Linari

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