Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: Woods and Mosses

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Vetiver

1.5799263902462
Encre Noire Lalique
1.507026850947
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Christian Dior
1.5042812601796
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5026990553306
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.5016287402857
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5015356694123
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5014425985388
Vetiver Zara
1.5012564567918
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.5011633859184
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.5010237796082
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.500884173298
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.5008376378612
Intense Vetyver Zara
1.5007911024245
The Maj House of Matriarch
1.5007445669878
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5007445669878
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5005584252408
Athunis Sigilli
1.5005584252408
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.5005118898041
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.5005118898041
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.5004653543674
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.5003722834939
Cologne Intense Borsalino
1.5003257480571
Capim Cheiroso Companhia da Terra
1.5003257480571
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5002792126204
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5002792126204
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.5002326771837
Vetiver Jalaine
1.5002326771837
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.5002326771837
Mix 11 Platinum J
1.5001861417469
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5001396063102
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5001396063102
Verde Citro Natura
1.5001396063102
Agua de Vetiver Angel Schlesser
1.5000930708735
Vetiver Moloko Ex Nihilo
1.5000930708735
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.5000930708735
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.5000465354367
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000465354367
Black Shot Pull and Bear
1.5000465354367
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5000465354367
Scent Essence - Romantic Bouquet Avon
1.5
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Vetiver Candora
1.5
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.5
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Zara Black Tag Zara
1.4999069291265
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4999069291265
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.4998138582531
Saturnalia Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4837779291265
Highwayman Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4751691184327
Woman Donna Karan
1.4741958898041
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4675046378612
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.4503257480571
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4423393859184
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.4358998504816
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.432433441249
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.4287106063102
Our Story For Him Avon
1.4287106063102
Madeiras Amazonia Viva
1.4286532618549
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4286175354367
Millennium Hope Jivago
1.4286175354367
Very "V" Saint Charles Shave
1.428571
Black Romane
1.4285244645633
Julie Arno Sorel
1.4189307480571
Vetiver Racinettes Ayala Moriel
1.4170858189306
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.4157009529061
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.4156577796082
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.4140482886128
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.409414409698
onda Vero Profumo
1.4082095354367
Blood Kiss Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4013960631021
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.4005118898041
Kouros Eau de Sport Yves Saint Laurent
1.4004653543674
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.4002792126204
Rendezvous Night Urban Retreat
1.4001861417469
Sweet Tyranny Smell Bent
1.4000465354367
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.3916297480571
Water Bath Priprioca Natura
1.387795031551
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3854923333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.3848942126204
Lavande & Vetiver Jeanne en Provence
1.3792014581879
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3763495276653
The Natural Gap
1.3757445669878
1902 Vetiver Parfums Berdoues
1.3750930708735
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3750930708735
Raw Spirit Bijou Vert Nomad Two Worlds
1.3725847357718
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.3712076378612
No. 17 Vetiver & Bergamot Rituals
1.3686071417469
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.3609307087347
Vetiver Veritas James Heeley
1.3603722834939
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3563846223184
Woods Abercrombie & Fitch
1.351499263251
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.3509973072735
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.3507911024245
Mazzolari Mazzolari
1.3505118898041
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3504653543674
Ellie Ellie Perfume
1.3462629135837
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.3455725669878
Cereus No.5 Cereus
1.3384053626041
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.335719646098
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3352874883429
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.334314323747
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3341241024245
That's Amore! Lui Gai Mattiolo
1.3338914252408
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3337052834939
Entice Him Ajmal
1.3336122126204
Brass and Bulldog Botanical Cologne Esscentual Alchemy
1.3335191417469
Andy Roddick Parlux
1.3335191417469
Sunrise Urban Men Franck Olivier
1.3334726063102
Derby Club House Belmont Armaf
1.3334726063102
Stra-Vivara Emilio Pucci
1.3333795354367
Tasman in Grey Code Deco
1.3333795354367
Ombre Fumee Evody Parfums
1.333333
Caspian Angela Flanders
1.333333
Trapeze Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3332399291265
Aurora Fuoco Micaelangelo
1.3313426639676
Eau Sauvage Parfum Christian Dior
1.3308244184001
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3267648271674
Vetiver Etro
1.3255584252408
Sandalo del Kashmir & Vetiver Tesori d`Oriente
1.3247893543674
Aromatic Blends: Vetiver & Black Tea Kiehl`s
1.323465173298
Silver Man Benetton
1.3202792126204
Bon Zai Ayala Moriel
1.3185518203267
Vetiver Extraordinaire Frederic Malle
1.3183681417469
Divine: Eros Opus Oils
1.3170919922286
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.3160682126204
Masculin 2 Vetyver Bourjois
1.3146174261715
Sel de Vetiver The Different Company
1.3138495276653
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.3134307087347
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3129188189306
Aurum Natura
1.3126861417469
Tobacco Mucho Stephanie de Saint-Aignan
1.3108103543674
Tamboti Wood Susanne Lang
1.3087623150449
Up To You for Him Avon
1.3082038898041
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.308046850947
Comme Des Garcons Series 4 Cologne : Vettiveru Comme des Garcons
1.3062049533715
Absinth Nasomatto
1.3043945354367
Cowgirl Grass D.S. & Durga
1.304348
Vanillaman Neil Morris
1.3040072441714
Cuba Green Cuba Paris
1.3036088111592
Time For Peace Kenzo
1.3007079046954
Narciso Rodriguez For Her Narciso Rodriguez
1.3004653543674
Freedom Sport Tommy Hilfiger
1.3003722834939
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3002792126204
Wood Portland General Store
1.3001396063102
Old Bourbon West Third Brand
1.3001396063102
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.3000465354367
Londoner EC2 Bex London
1.3000465354367
Oxbow for Men Oxbow
1.3
Nononsense 1 Nico Uytterhaegen

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