Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: WOODS AND MOSSES

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Vetiver Perfumes

1.5718660518084
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5086803519062
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Christian Dior
1.50477028348
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5021896383187
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.501485826002
Vetiver Zara
1.5014467253177
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5010948191593
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.5010166177908
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.500899315738
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.500899315738
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5008602150538
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5008602150538
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.500742913001
Intense Vetyver Zara
1.5006256109482
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.5005865102639
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.5005474095797
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5002346041056
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5001955034213
Vetyver Outremer
1.500156402737
Verde Citro Natura
1.500156402737
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.500156402737
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.500156402737
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.500156402737
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.5001173020528
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5001173020528
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5001173020528
Color Me Blue Milton Lloyd
1.5001173020528
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5000782013685
Eau de Vetyver Le Galion
1.5000782013685
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000782013685
Vetiver Proximity Axe
1.5000391006843
Vetiver Bourbon The Merchant of Venice
1.5000391006843
A Day in Grasse Arts&Scents
1.5000391006843
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Land of Fashion Vicini
1.5
Vetivert Bourbon French Parfums
1.5
Vetiver & Petitgrain Splash Tauerville
1.5
West Indies Hi Wildflower Botanica
1.5
Vetiver Candora
1.5
Black Shot Pull and Bear
1.4999608993157
Vovo Natura
1.4999217986315
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4999217986315
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.486456913001
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.4748307595308
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.4655461075269
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4620072082111
Madrona House of Matriarch
1.4552488123167
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4545058993157
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4531309882698
Woman Donna Karan
1.4518800977517
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4378910068426
Vitrum Sammarco
1.4349003020528
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.4291966109482
Athunis Sigilli
1.4291486314761
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.4290843499511
Eau de Cartier Vetiver Bleu Cartier
1.4286492013685
Very "V" Saint Charles Shave
1.428571
Black Romane
1.4231943020528
Vetiver Jalaine
1.4201702218964
The Natural Gap
1.4185339061584
Symphonie-Passion Unum
1.4170189061584
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.4168625034213
Aktis Korres
1.416667
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.4113588396872
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.4089240615836
Woods Abercrombie & Fitch
1.4044896041056
Our Story For Him Avon
1.4002346041056
Helen Carnate Smell Bent
1.400156402737
Swiss Army Unlimited Snowpower Victorinox Swiss Army
1.4000391006843
Bayrhum Vetiver Creed
1.4
Arancia MPF
1.4
Varens Vétiver Ulric de Varens
1.4
Club Edition Monte-Carlo Sergio Tacchini
1.4
Vetyver Dolce Il Profumiere
1.3990412492669
Mirror Mirror Collection - Miroir Des Vanites Thierry Mugler
1.3945493861193
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.3936298328446
Vetiver Veritas James Heeley
1.3910459726295
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.3899838191593
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3889281006843
Amarcord Atelier Flou
1.386613315738
Sultan Vetiver Nishane
1.3846541006843
Aube Drift Parfum de Terre
1.3828613088954
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.3828613088954
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.3814603088954
Divine Attraction Initio Parfums Prives
1.3799747116325
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3797143333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.3776317047898
Capim Cheiroso Companhia da Terra
1.3765955650049
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.3762121212121
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.3758211143695
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3751955034213
Notte d'amore Pantheon Roma
1.3751173020528
Lichen & Vetiver Voluspa
1.3750782013685
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3750391006843
Baron Lui Niche
1.3750391006843
Vetivier & Chocolat Hildegard Braukmann
1.375
Tachibana Miya Shinma
1.375
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.375
Chernoe Domino Severnoye Siyanie
1.3731096177908
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.3729722697947
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.3720546109482
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3708983079179
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3706828054741
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3704873020528
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.3665187116325
Eau Fraîche Molinard
1.3644438005865
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.364378913001
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.3638706041056
Madeiras Amazonia Viva
1.3637533020528
Java Wood Premiere Note
1.3622591280547
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.3602737047898
L'Eau de Paille Serge Lutens
1.3589441045943
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3548867956989
Eau Sauvage Parfum Christian Dior
1.3547063499511
onda Vero Profumo
1.3541140205279
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.3532147047898
Terre de Cèdre Acorelle
1.3516247047898
Loup des Steppes Sama
1.3495218914956
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3478353294233
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.3465841075269
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.344492913001
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.3416171348974
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.3401509335288
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.3390412121212
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.3390094095797
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.338274370479
Cuir Vetiver Yves Rocher
1.3343887184751
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3338794506354
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.3338022082111
Castaña Cloon Keen Atelier
1.3337631075269
Aqua Colonia Vetyver Florascent
1.3337240068426
Shaded Diane Pernet
1.3336458054741
Spice Blend/ Vetiver April Aromatics
1.3335285034213
Otto Kern Commitment Man Otto Kern
1.3334503020528
Raw Spirit Summer Rain Raw Spirit Fragrances
1.3333721006843
Bal de Bain Regency Cosmetics
1.3333721006843
Fleur de Pavot Chaugan
1.333333
V G Parfums
1.333333
Caspian Angela Flanders
1.333333
Eau Inexplicable Thirdman
1.333333
Dream Dubai Khalis
1.333333
Naceo Noir Lobogal
1.333333
Unisekt Arae Nico Uytterhaegen
1.333333
Rock`n`Roll Victorine
1.333333
Tasman in Grey Code Deco
1.3259720068426
Lavande & Vetiver Jeanne en Provence
1.3255989266862
Aquae Nobilis Profumum Roma
1.3248714095797
Vetyver Nicolai Parfumeur Createur
1.3248323088954
Fig & Vetiver Anthousa
1.3240764095797
Eau du Kashmir Rituals
1.3237245034213
Oud Anfasic Dokhoon

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