Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: Woods and Mosses

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Vetiver

1.5910985831054
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5084646438338
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Christian Dior
1.5041238008421
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5016495203368
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5013890697573
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5013456613274
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.5013456613274
Vetiver Zara
1.5012154360377
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.5009549854582
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.5008681685983
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5008247601684
Intense Vetyver Zara
1.5007379433086
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5006077180188
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.5006077180188
Athunis Sigilli
1.5005643095889
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.500520901159
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.500520901159
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.5004340842992
Cologne Intense Borsalino
1.5003906758693
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5003038590094
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.5003038590094
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.5003038590094
Capim Cheiroso Companhia da Terra
1.5003038590094
Sheikh Al Shuyukh Lattafa Perfumes
1.5002604505795
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5001736337197
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5001302252898
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.5001302252898
Verde Citro Natura
1.5001302252898
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5001302252898
Conviction Elysees Fashion
1.5000868168598
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.5000868168598
Agua de Vetiver Angel Schlesser
1.5000868168598
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000434084299
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5000434084299
Black Shot Pull and Bear
1.5
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.5
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Vetiver Candora
1.5
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4999131831402
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.4999131831402
Vitrum Sammarco
1.4999131831402
Highwayman Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4999131831402
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4998263662803
Saturnalia Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.496794518861
Woman Donna Karan
1.4674917601684
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.4641557747102
The Botanist MiN New York
1.4619720842992
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4524377601684
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.4451385348787
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4446176337197
179-001 Informal Scent Spectator
1.4446176337197
Our Story For Him Avon
1.4445742252898
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.4422612107479
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.4367833805617
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4363715900942
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.4321218590094
Vetiver Racinettes Ayala Moriel
1.4287880421496
Madeiras Amazonia Viva
1.4286144084299
Very "V" Saint Charles Shave
1.428571
Black Romane
1.4285275915701
Julie Arno Sorel
1.4258481119069
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.4232940421496
Vetiver Jalaine
1.4209611119069
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.4170576758693
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.4167538168598
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.4146921249729
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.4095924491036
onda Vero Profumo
1.4005643095889
Blood Kiss Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4005643095889
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.4002604505795
Rendezvous Night Urban Retreat
1.3971161768025
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.3926062528975
The Natural Gap
1.3925349709164
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.3904082950471
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.3878349433086
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3854913333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.3846584084299
Aube Drift Parfum de Terre
1.3786806958805
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.3771407658549
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3757813517385
1902 Vetiver Parfums Berdoues
1.3756077180188
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3754774927291
Aromatic Blends: Vetiver & Black Tea Kiehl`s
1.3753472674393
Water Bath Priprioca Natura
1.3750868168598
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3715721395147
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.3708040842992
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3688116758693
Lavande & Vetiver Jeanne en Provence
1.3685946337197
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.3665602553718
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.364677802318
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.3575336758693
New Experience Man Tom Tailor
1.3563268575335
Woods Abercrombie & Fitch
1.350520901159
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3504865203368
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.3504340842992
Ellie Ellie Perfume
1.3456527601684
No. 17 Vetiver & Bergamot Rituals
1.3455225348787
Cereus No.5 Cereus
1.344270901159
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.3417632790294
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3415745420411
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3345918444676
Aquae Nobilis Profumum Roma
1.3340709433086
That's Amore! Lui Gai Mattiolo
1.3338973095889
Sandalo del Kashmir & Vetiver Tesori d`Oriente
1.3337236758693
Mix 11 Platinum J
1.3336802674393
Ombre Fumee Evody Parfums
1.3335934505795
Andy Roddick Parlux
1.3335934505795
Sunrise Urban Men Franck Olivier
1.3335066337197
Loup des Steppes Sama
1.3334632252898
Stra-Vivara Emilio Pucci
1.3334198168598
Bal de Bain Regency Cosmetics
1.333333
Caspian Angela Flanders
1.333333
Trapeze Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.333333
Tasman in Grey Code Deco
1.3331610375049
Eau Sauvage Parfum Christian Dior
1.3331559142249
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.333089233928
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3286270754439
Vetiver Extraordinaire Frederic Malle
1.3264776758693
Entice Him Ajmal
1.3253656438338
Absinth Nasomatto
1.3243491525806
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.3235793938881
Silver Man Benetton
1.3228848590094
01 06 Lime Absolue Fragrance Republic
1.3202604505795
Bon Zai Ayala Moriel
1.3199617456266
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.3196832499457
Comme Des Garcons Series 4 Cologne : Vettiveru Comme des Garcons
1.3185726758693
Precious One Angela Flanders
1.3183556337197
Divine: Eros Opus Oils
1.317872604636
08 Seylon Odin
1.3170478444676
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.3160494505795
Masculin 2 Vetyver Bourjois
1.3129340842992
Aurum Natura
1.3129057325607
Just Cavalli Him Roberto Cavalli
1.3127170421496
Zara Black Tag Zara
1.3126736337197
Tobacco Mucho Stephanie de Saint-Aignan
1.312423518861
Vetiver Etro
1.3112793182272
Sel de Vetiver The Different Company
1.3107790842992
Tamboti Wood Susanne Lang
1.3086903938881
Up To You for Him Avon
1.3077788168598
Megumi Ayala Moriel
1.3056502528975
Chakra 1 Motivation Aveda
1.3043914084299
Cowgirl Grass D.S. & Durga
1.304348
Vanillaman Neil Morris
1.3035848444676
Canturi Stefano Canturi
1.303449703477
Time For Peace Kenzo
1.3007813517385
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3006077180188
Freedom Sport Tommy Hilfiger
1.3004774927291
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3004133881582
Narciso Rodriguez For Her Narciso Rodriguez

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