Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: WOODS AND MOSSES

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Vetiver Perfumes

1.5732245911602
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5089502762431
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Christian Dior
1.5050460405157
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5022099447514
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5015101289134
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5013996316759
Vetiver Zara
1.5010313075506
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.5010313075506
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.5009576427256
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.5008839779006
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.500847145488
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.5008103130755
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.500773480663
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5006629834254
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5006629834254
Intense Vetyver Zara
1.5006261510129
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.5003683241252
Helen Carnate Smell Bent
1.5002578268877
Black Linen Joseph Abboud
1.5002209944751
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5001841620626
Vetyver Outremer
1.5001473296501
Verde Citro Natura
1.5001473296501
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.5001473296501
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5001473296501
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.5001104972376
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5001104972376
Color Me Blue Milton Lloyd
1.5001104972376
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5001104972376
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.500073664825
Vetivert Hové Parfumeur, Ltd.
1.500073664825
Eau Intense Rodier
1.500073664825
Eau de Vetyver Le Galion
1.500073664825
Vetivert Bourbon French Parfums
1.500073664825
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.500073664825
Vetiver Proximity Axe
1.500073664825
Portrait of New York - Vetiver Ralph Lauren
1.500073664825
Black Shot Pull and Bear
1.5000368324125
Black Network Lomani
1.5000368324125
Vetiver & Petitgrain Splash Tauerville
1.5000368324125
A Day in Grasse Arts&Scents
1.5000368324125
Vetiver Bourbon The Merchant of Venice
1.5000368324125
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Vetiver Candora
1.5
Rudo Khalis
1.4999631675875
Vovo Natura
1.499926335175
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.499926335175
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.499926335175
01 Sweet Wood Desire Body Conjure
1.4655211565378
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4651844088398
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.4620536537753
Rain Day Derek Lam 10 Crosby
1.4618694917127
Djinn House of Orpheus
1.4553736353591
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4545081675875
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4531698729282
Woman Donna Karan
1.4518439171271
Eau de Cartier Vetiver Bleu Cartier
1.4497166482505
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4481661565378
Symphonie-Passion Unum
1.4417653186004
Madrona House of Matriarch
1.4297128047882
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.428571
Black Romane
1.4233811178637
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.4231874972376
Vetiver Jalaine
1.4210737826888
Vetiver Veritas James Heeley
1.4200608047882
The Natural Gap
1.4181330791897
Woods 2010 Edition Abercrombie & Fitch
1.4170353241252
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.416740664825
Legni Nature`s
1.416667
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.4110454917127
Capim Cheiroso Companhia da Terra
1.4095792633517
Mirror Mirror Collection - Miroir Des Vanites Thierry Mugler
1.4083278103131
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.4080699834254
Athunis Sigilli
1.4077016593002
Aktis Korres
1.4071625819521
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.4047338213628
Divine Attraction Initio Parfums Prives
1.4018784530387
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.4010313075506
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.4001841620626
Argentum Pecksniff`s
1.4001473296501
Legendary Penthouse
1.4000368324125
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.4
Vetyver Dolce Il Profumiere
1.4
Arancia MPF
1.3935127053407
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.3934267992634
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.3932253241252
Swiss Army Unlimited Snowpower Victorinox Swiss Army
1.3924148268877
Our Story For Him Avon
1.3914513296501
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.3907964861878
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.3901016040516
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.3899571399632
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.385462145488
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.3846518324125
Aube Drift Parfum de Terre
1.384615
Energy Fusion for Men Avon
1.3827213241252
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.3805849116022
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.3804903333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.3799361510129
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3795934696133
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3794204972376
Java Wood Premiere Note
1.3790611289134
Sultan Vetiver Nishane
1.375073664825
Lichen & Vetiver Voluspa
1.3750368324125
Vetivier & Chocolat Hildegard Braukmann
1.375
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.375
Chernoe Domino Severnoye Siyanie
1.375
Baron Lui Niche
1.3723280773481
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3707383241252
Vitrum Sammarco
1.3706646593002
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3705541620626
Vetiver Natura
1.3704804972376
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.3685683296501
Strictly Night Jil Sander
1.3643681915285
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3643358158379
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3634184309392
onda Vero Profumo
1.3621661289134
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.3612951620626
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.3612338858195
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3600294088398
Nirvana Rose Elizabeth and James
1.3587119944751
Madeiras Amazonia Viva
1.3578059834254
Eau Fraîche Molinard
1.3573271620626
Notte d'amore Pantheon Roma
1.3549659815838
Eau Sauvage Parfum Christian Dior
1.3540459723757
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.3532356593002
Terre de Cèdre Acorelle
1.352941
Vetiver Indien Paul Emilien
1.3522571565378
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.3515719944751
Loup des Steppes Sama
1.3500978158379
L'Eau de Paille Serge Lutens
1.3493997550645
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.347774626151
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.3464118268877
Caffe Delle Vergini Hilde Soliani
1.3460606482505
Emotional Rescue Mark Buxton
1.3452527200737
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3443761510129
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.3397614475138
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.3389776537753
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3349904585635
Aquae Nobilis Profumum Roma
1.334952359116
Cuir Vetiver Yves Rocher
1.334180145488
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3340696482505
Eau du Kashmir Rituals
1.3337749889503
Castaña Cloon Keen Atelier
1.3337381565378
Vetyver Florascent
1.3337013241252
Shaded Diane Pernet
1.3336276593002
179-001 Informal Scent Spectator
1.3336276593002
Spice Blend/ Vetiver April Aromatics
1.3335554898711
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.3335539944751
Eau Inexplicable Thirdman
1.3335171620626
Sinai Kesling
1.3334434972376
White Leather N°17 The Master Perfumer
1.333406664825
A & F 1892 Cobalt Abercrombie & Fitch

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