Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: Woods and Mosses

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Vetiver

1.5746476738419
Encre Noire Lalique
1.505954995851
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Dior
1.5042954068434
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5026358178357
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.5016595890077
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5014643432421
Vetiver Zara
1.5014155318007
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5012690974764
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.5010250402694
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.500976228828
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.5007809830624
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5006833601796
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.5006345487382
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5005857372968
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.5005369258554
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.500488114414
Athunis Sigilli
1.5004393029726
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.5004393029726
Cologne Intense Borsalino
1.5003416800898
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5003416800898
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5002928686484
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.500244057207
Mix 11 Platinum J
1.500244057207
Zeste de Vétiver Durance de Provence
1.500244057207
Vetiver Jalaine
1.5001464343242
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5000976228828
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5000976228828
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.5000976228828
Agua de Vetiver Angel Schlesser
1.5000488114414
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5000488114414
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000488114414
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000488114414
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.5
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.4999023771172
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4999023771172
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.4999023771172
Highwayman Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4998047542344
Saturnalia Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.467399171621
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.4652142182848
Woman Donna Karan
1.4619773029726
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4618308686484
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4528849153121
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.4464940805389
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.4380724004491
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.4298400974764
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.428571
Black Romane
1.4250488114414
Blood Kiss Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4203375837848
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4189466800898
Vetiver Racinettes Ayala Moriel
1.4170086800898
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.416618833553
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.4157454576561
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.4156590402694
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.414281114414
Sandalo del Kashmir & Vetiver Tesori d`Oriente
1.4005369258554
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.4003416800898
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.4002928686484
Rendezvous Night Urban Retreat
1.4001464343242
Sweet Tyranny Smell Bent
1.4000488114414
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.4000488114414
Work@holic Base Man Linn Young
1.3950856864841
onda Vero Profumo
1.3883660974764
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3877315487382
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3870283333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.3854936059452
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3853977651193
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3848102457656
Lavande & Vetiver Jeanne en Provence
1.3764155318007
The Natural Gap
1.3757809830624
1902 Vetiver Parfums Berdoues
1.3750976228828
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3739133311368
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.3685186228828
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.3640753029726
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3573382457656
Entice Him Ajmal
1.3562113665739
Woods Abercrombie & Fitch
1.3533803029726
Freedom Sport Tommy Hilfiger
1.3507809830624
Mazzolari Mazzolari
1.3505369258554
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.350488114414
Ellie Ellie Perfume
1.3478135544004
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.3456089830624
Cereus No.5 Cereus
1.3433174877239
Eau Sauvage Parfum Dior
1.3417231441402
Vetiver Etro
1.3375772374677
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3344749555816
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.3344680489091
Sel de Vetiver The Different Company
1.334309228828
Windsor Eau de Toilette D.R.Harris
1.3339675487382
That's Amore! Lui Gai Mattiolo
1.3336746800898
Me Myself & I Ego Facto
1.3336258686484
Brass and Bulldog Botanical Cologne Esscentual Alchemy
1.3335282457656
Precious One Angela Flanders
1.3335282457656
Sunrise Urban Men Franck Olivier
1.3334794343242
Stra-Vivara Emilio Pucci
1.3334794343242
Andy Roddick Parlux
1.333333
Trapeze Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.333333
Rose Poudre Bottega Profumiera
1.3332353771172
Aurora Fuoco Micaelangelo
1.3292280699956
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3260264576561
08 Seylon Odin
1.3257767120613
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3202928686484
Bon Zai Ayala Moriel
1.3183772457656
Divine: Eros Opus Oils
1.3176087606287
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.3171557203593
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.3136714745936
Cowboy Grass DS & Durga
1.312988114414
No. 17 Vetiver & Bergamot Rituals
1.3120113963001
Absinth Nasomatto
1.3109307372968
Tamboti Wood Susanne Lang
1.3088146631522
Up To You for Him Avon
1.308180114414
Bois Bleu Robert Piguet
1.3071510974764
Vince Camuto Femme Vince Camuto
1.3071414218773
Vetiver Extraordinaire Frederic Malle
1.3054218517108
Notte Bianca Linari
1.304348
Cowgirl Grass DS & Durga
1.304348
Vanillaman Neil Morris
1.304006228828
Cuba Green Cuba Paris
1.3035954004491
Time For Peace Kenzo
1.3032046059452
Eva Santa Maria Novella
1.3006601871431
Narciso Rodriguez For Her Narciso Rodriguez
1.3004669047689
Comme Des Garcons Series 4 Cologne : Vettiveru Comme des Garcons
1.3003904915312
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.3002928686484
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3002429894567
Les Creations de Monsieur Dior Diorella Dior
1.3001952457656
Wood Portland General Store
1.3001464343242
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.3000488114414
Oxbow for Men Oxbow
1.3
Nononsense 1 Nico Uytterhaegen
1.2995606970274
Just Cavalli Him Roberto Cavalli
1.2992006462147
Vetyver Lanvin
1.297785114414
Vetyver Parfums de Nicolaï
1.2973946228828
Megumi Ayala Moriel
1.2972393432421
Cuir 28 Le Labo
1.2972234173866
Silver Man Benetton
1.2955823432421
Déclaration Edition Limitée Cartier
1.2954847203593
Gentile Maria Candida Gentile
1.2949966059452
Hellstone Lush
1.2928427267536
Kenzo Air Intense Kenzo
1.2868854745936
BOSS The Collection Cotton & Verbena Hugo Boss
1.286202114414
Eau Fraîche Molinard
1.286202114414
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.2861533029726
Racing Ferrari
1.2861044915312
New Experience Man Tom Tailor
1.2860556800898
B-Cool Police
1.2859092457656
Mayor Energy Novaya Zarya
1.2859092457656
Courage EDT Förster and Johnsen
1.285714
Patchouli Man Bjork and Berries
1.285714
Orient Al-Rehab

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