Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: Woods and Mosses

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Vetiver

1.5763086238186
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5058763038049
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Dior
1.5042603202586
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5026443367122
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.5017139219431
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.5016649527447
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5014690759512
Vetiver Zara
1.5014201067529
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5010773223642
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.5010283531659
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.5009793839675
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.500783507174
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5006855687772
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.5006365995789
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5005876303805
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.5005386611821
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.5004896919837
Athunis Sigilli
1.5004407227854
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.5004407227854
Cologne Intense Borsalino
1.5003427843886
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5003427843886
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5002938151902
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.5002448459919
Vetiver Jalaine
1.5002448459919
Mix 11 Platinum J
1.5001469075951
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5000979383967
Agua de Vetiver Angel Schlesser
1.5000979383967
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.5000979383967
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5000489691984
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000489691984
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000489691984
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000489691984
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.5
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.4999510308016
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.4999020616033
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4999020616033
Highwayman Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4998041232065
Saturnalia Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4674015379756
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.4652282586553
Woman Donna Karan
1.4619787227854
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4528485666716
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.4465007063317
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.4298441991577
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.428571
Black Romane
1.4250489691984
Blood Kiss Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4199272694775
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4189477843886
Vetiver Racinettes Ayala Moriel
1.4175049127369
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.4170097843886
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.415751767935
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.4156623531659
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.4142826919837
Sandalo del Kashmir & Vetiver Tesori d`Oriente
1.4005386611821
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.4003427843886
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.4002938151902
Rendezvous Night Urban Retreat
1.4001469075951
Sweet Tyranny Smell Bent
1.4000489691984
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.4000489691984
Work@holic Base Man Linn Young
1.3949972135057
onda Vero Profumo
1.3883701991577
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3877335995789
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3871713333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.3854964455707
Shooting Stars Collection: Modoc Xerjoff
1.3854607101513
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3848108767935
Lavande & Vetiver Jeanne en Provence
1.3764690759512
The Natural Gap
1.3757345379756
1902 Vetiver Parfums Berdoues
1.3750979383967
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3739655414035
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.3685189383967
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.3640767227854
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.360277028696
Vetiver Creed
1.3573388767935
Entice Him Ajmal
1.3561239978943
Woods Abercrombie & Fitch
1.3533817227854
Freedom Sport Tommy Hilfiger
1.353332753587
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.350783507174
Mazzolari Mazzolari
1.3505386611821
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3504896919837
Ellie Ellie Perfume
1.3468757188678
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.345611507174
Cereus No.5 Cereus
1.3434226730327
Eau Sauvage Parfum Dior
1.341689950639
Vetiver Etro
1.3376653303952
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3345562995936
Sel de Vetiver The Different Company
1.3344908890358
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.3343123839675
Windsor Eau de Toilette D.R.Harris
1.3339695995789
That's Amore! Lui Gai Mattiolo
1.3336757843886
Me Myself & I Ego Facto
1.3336268151902
Brass and Bulldog Botanical Cologne Esscentual Alchemy
1.3336268151902
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.3335288767935
Sunrise Urban Men Franck Olivier
1.3335288767935
Precious One Angela Flanders
1.3334799075951
Stra-Vivara Emilio Pucci
1.3334799075951
Andy Roddick Parlux
1.333333
Trapeze Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.333333
Rose Poudre Bottega Profumiera
1.3332350616033
Aurora Fuoco Micaelangelo
1.3283525810195
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3280097759659
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.326032767935
08 Seylon Odin
1.3202938151902
Bon Zai Ayala Moriel
1.3183778767935
Divine: Eros Opus Oils
1.3176164907203
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.3171601375545
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.313675260761
Cowboy Grass DS & Durga
1.3130386611821
No. 17 Vetiver & Bergamot Rituals
1.3118402873513
Absinth Nasomatto
1.3109326303805
Tamboti Wood Susanne Lang
1.3107482299594
Vince Camuto Femme Vince Camuto
1.3088182915626
Up To You for Him Avon
1.3082306611821
Bois Bleu Robert Piguet
1.304348
Cowgirl Grass DS & Durga
1.304348
Vanillaman Neil Morris
1.3040093839675
Cuba Green Cuba Paris
1.3036009219431
Time For Peace Kenzo
1.3032074455707
Eva Santa Maria Novella
1.3024846650017
Vetiver Extraordinaire Frederic Malle
1.3007624280887
Narciso Rodriguez For Her Narciso Rodriguez
1.3002938151902
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3002538746878
Les Creations de Monsieur Dior Diorella Dior
1.3001965953675
Comme Des Garcons Series 4 Cologne : Vettiveru Comme des Garcons
1.3001958767935
Wood Portland General Store
1.3001469075951
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.3000489691984
Oxbow for Men Oxbow
1.3
Nononsense 1 Nico Uytterhaegen
1.2995103080163
Just Cavalli Him Roberto Cavalli
1.2992067987366
Vetyver Lanvin
1.2983743223642
Notte Bianca Linari
1.2977866919837
Vetyver Parfums de Nicolaï
1.2973949383967
Megumi Ayala Moriel
1.2972440759512
Cuir 28 Le Labo
1.2972264147691
Silver Man Benetton
1.2955870759512
Déclaration Edition Limitée Cartier
1.2954891375545
Gentile Maria Candida Gentile
1.2949994455707
Hellstone Lush
1.2928555050683
Kenzo Air Intense Kenzo
1.2869942561579
Hermessence Vetiver Tonka Hermes
1.286889260761
BOSS The Collection Cotton & Verbena Hugo Boss
1.2862036919837
Eau Fraîche Molinard
1.2862036919837
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.2861547227854
Racing Ferrari
1.286105753587
New Experience Man Tom Tailor
1.2860567843886
B-Cool Police
1.2859098767935
Courage EDT Förster and Johnsen
1.2859098767935
Mayor Energy Novaya Zarya
1.285714
Patchouli Man Bjork and Berries

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