Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: WOODS AND MOSSES

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Vetiver Perfumes

1.5722754241991
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5086652357103
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Christian Dior
1.5046506081565
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5022656808967
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5013514587805
Vetiver Zara
1.5013117099928
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5011129660545
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.5010334684792
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.5009539709039
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5009142221162
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.5008744733286
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.5008347245409
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5007552269656
Intense Vetyver Zara
1.5006359806026
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.5005564830273
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5005167342396
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.5005167342396
Divine Attraction Initio Parfums Prives
1.500357739089
Vitrum Sammarco
1.500238492726
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5001987439383
Vetyver Outremer
1.5001589951506
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5001589951506
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5001589951506
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.5001589951506
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.500119246363
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.500119246363
Verde Citro Natura
1.500119246363
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.500119246363
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5000794975753
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000794975753
Vetiver Proximity Axe
1.5000397487877
Vetiver Bourbon The Merchant of Venice
1.5000397487877
Java Wood Premiere Note
1.5000397487877
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000397487877
A Day in Grasse Arts&Scents
1.5
Vetiver Candora
1.5
Black Shot Pull and Bear
1.5
Land of Fashion Vicini
1.4999602512123
Vovo Natura
1.4999205024247
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4999205024247
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.4864692269656
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.4748076469513
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.4655532366643
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4575620960331
Woman Donna Karan
1.4545052512123
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4505398695445
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4497106614993
Mirror Mirror Collection - Miroir Des Vanites Thierry Mugler
1.4380167342396
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.4366124781779
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4362514199857
Eau de Cartier Vetiver Bleu Cartier
1.4349419951506
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.4292069806026
Athunis Sigilli
1.4286504975753
Very "V" Saint Charles Shave
1.428571
Evening Rose (Вечерняя Роза) Apple Parfums
1.428571
Black Romane
1.423196246363
Vetiver Jalaine
1.417024739089
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.416667
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.4161629466571
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.4089823908896
Woods Abercrombie & Fitch
1.404493492726
Our Story For Him Avon
1.4005167342396
Essence No. 6 Vetiver Elie Saab
1.400238492726
Helen Carnate Smell Bent
1.4001589951506
Swiss Army Unlimited Snowpower Victorinox Swiss Army
1.4000397487877
Bayrhum Vetiver Creed
1.4
Varens Vétiver Ulric de Varens
1.3980572124175
The Natural Gap
1.3968267196915
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3953332318149
Eau Fraîche Molinard
1.3925848653311
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.3906190005565
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.3889287487877
Amarcord Atelier Flou
1.3888061978695
Vetiver Veritas James Heeley
1.3868409321091
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.3865089757532
Sultan Vetiver Nishane
1.3846547487877
Aube Drift Parfum de Terre
1.3828697342396
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.3799857293903
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3799703333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.3788158836155
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.3776362415136
Capim Cheiroso Companhia da Terra
1.3766571348279
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.3762322124175
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.3757154781779
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3751987439383
Notte d'amore Pantheon Roma
1.375119246363
Lichen & Vetiver Voluspa
1.3750794975753
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3750397487877
Vetivier & Chocolat Hildegard Braukmann
1.3750397487877
Baron Lui Niche
1.375
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.3730867196915
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.3720829495985
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3720649806026
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3706879903013
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.370489246363
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.368891574211
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3661173899356
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3655041930201
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.3643912269656
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.363874492726
Madeiras Amazonia Viva
1.3622062027188
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.3551472406392
Eau Sauvage Parfum Christian Dior
1.3540937148422
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.3516292415136
Loup des Steppes Sama
1.3482234878766
Vetiver Matale Parfumerie Generale
1.3477837002941
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.3475114956674
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3465912366643
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.3459989127117
onda Vero Profumo
1.3445052269656
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.3415706905954
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.3389787342396
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3389421824469
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.336155163924
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.3343664684792
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3338099854519
Castaña Cloon Keen Atelier
1.3337702366643
Aqua Colonia Vetyver Florascent
1.3337304878766
Shaded Diane Pernet
1.3336509903013
Spice Blend/ Vetiver April Aromatics
1.3335317439383
Otto Kern Commitment Man Otto Kern
1.3333727487877
Bal de Bain Regency Cosmetics
1.333333
Caspian Angela Flanders
1.333333
Unisekt Arae Nico Uytterhaegen
1.333333
Tasman in Grey Code Deco
1.333333
Naceo Noir Lobogal
1.3265368496701
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.3259784878766
Lavande & Vetiver Jeanne en Provence
1.3254652075682
Aquae Nobilis Profumum Roma
1.3248804830273
Vetyver Nicolai Parfumeur Createur
1.3248407342396
Fig & Vetiver Anthousa
1.3237277439383
Oud Anfasic Dokhoon
1.3222327439383
01 06 Lime Absolue Fragrance Republic
1.3205402075682
Herrera for Men Sensual Vetiver Carolina Herrera
1.320366999046
Comme Des Garcons Series 4 Cologne : Vettiveru Comme des Garcons
1.3202782415136
New Experience Man Tom Tailor
1.3192597293903
Emotional Rescue Mark Buxton
1.318539739089
Precious One Angela Flanders
1.3182614975753
Divine: Eros Opus Oils
1.316146739089
Adone Re Profumo
1.3160672415136
Caffe Delle Vergini Hilde Soliani
1.3158287487877
Enygma Onyrico
1.3155594733286
Infusion de Vetiver (2015) Prada
1.3150044878766
Water Bath Priprioca Natura
1.3136504878766
Entice Him Ajmal
1.3125794975753
Tobacco Mucho Stephanie de Saint-Aignan
1.3125794975753
Satin-perla Dr. Taffi
1.3119346130058
Vetiver Etro
1.3111537002941
No. 17 Vetiver & Bergamot Rituals
1.3111430911837
Vetiver Pour Elle Guerlain
1.310583492726
Courage EDT Förster and Johnsen

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