Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: Woods and Mosses

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Vetiver

1.5906886861185
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5080017683466
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Christian Dior
1.5040671971706
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.501724137931
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5013704686118
Vetiver Zara
1.5013704686118
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5012820512821
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.5012378426172
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.5009725906278
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.5008399646331
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5008399646331
Intense Vetyver Zara
1.5007957559682
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5006631299735
The Maj House of Matriarch
1.5006189213086
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.5005305039788
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.5005305039788
Athunis Sigilli
1.5004862953139
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.500442086649
Cologne Intense Borsalino
1.5003536693192
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.5003094606543
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.5003094606543
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5003094606543
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5002652519894
Capim Cheiroso Companhia da Terra
1.5002652519894
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.5002210433245
Vetiver Jalaine
1.5001768346596
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5001326259947
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.5001326259947
Verde Citro Natura
1.5001326259947
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5001326259947
Zara Black Tag Zara
1.5000884173298
Conviction Elysees Fashion
1.5000884173298
Agua de Vetiver Angel Schlesser
1.5000884173298
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000442086649
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5000442086649
Black Shot Pull and Bear
1.5
Vetiver Candora
1.5
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.5
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4999557913351
Vitrum Sammarco
1.4999115826702
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4999115826702
Highwayman Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4999115826702
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.4998231653404
Saturnalia Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4967049098143
Woman Donna Karan
1.4675069646331
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.4623779646331
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.461980086649
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4451071299735
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4446208346596
179-001 Informal Scent Spectator
1.4445766259947
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.4422812166225
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.4363391892131
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.4361976772767
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.4334526560566
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4321274606543
Vetiver Racinettes Ayala Moriel
1.4287036259947
Our Story For Him Avon
1.4287036259947
Madeiras Amazonia Viva
1.4286152086649
Very "V" Saint Charles Shave
1.428571
Black Romane
1.4285267913351
Julie Arno Sorel
1.4170648779841
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.4167554173298
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.4156065906278
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.4147167365164
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.4095656498674
onda Vero Profumo
1.402786316534
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.4005747126437
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.4004862953139
Blood Kiss Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4002652519894
Rendezvous Night Urban Retreat
1.4001768346596
Sweet Tyranny Smell Bent
1.4000442086649
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.3926302599469
The Natural Gap
1.3923933465959
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.3878485473033
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3857843333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.3846592086649
Aube Drift Parfum de Terre
1.3777658045977
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3757957559682
1902 Vetiver Parfums Berdoues
1.3756189213086
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3753978779841
Aromatic Blends: Vetiver & Black Tea Kiehl`s
1.3753536693192
Water Bath Priprioca Natura
1.3750884173298
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3745978028294
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.3709005039788
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3688188779841
Lavande & Vetiver Jeanne en Provence
1.3685536259947
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.3639278037135
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.3586903032714
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.357585086649
New Experience Man Tom Tailor
1.3562124412025
Woods Abercrombie & Fitch
1.3543114686118
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.3509606852343
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.3505305039788
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.350442086649
Ellie Ellie Perfume
1.3497347480106
The Botanist MiN New York
1.3457563819629
No. 17 Vetiver & Bergamot Rituals
1.3455353386384
Cereus No.5 Cereus
1.3442805039788
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.3382843704686
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.3353122334218
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3345708426172
Aquae Nobilis Profumum Roma
1.3340845473033
That's Amore! Lui Gai Mattiolo
1.334044418214
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3336424606543
Mix 11 Platinum J
1.3335982519894
Andy Roddick Parlux
1.3335982519894
Sunrise Urban Men Franck Olivier
1.3335098346596
Loup des Steppes Sama
1.3335098346596
Ombre Fumee Evody Parfums
1.3334656259947
Stra-Vivara Emilio Pucci
1.3334214173298
Bal de Bain Regency Cosmetics
1.3333772086649
Tasman in Grey Code Deco
1.333333
Trapeze Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.333333
Caspian Angela Flanders
1.3327990831123
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3314599911583
Eau Sauvage Parfum Christian Dior
1.3297190132626
Vetiver Extraordinaire Frederic Malle
1.3266862166225
Vetiver Veritas James Heeley
1.3264848779841
Entice Him Ajmal
1.3255305039788
Sandalo del Kashmir & Vetiver Tesori d`Oriente
1.3239046852343
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.3235977992927
Silver Man Benetton
1.3202652519894
Bon Zai Ayala Moriel
1.3185356693192
Precious One Angela Flanders
1.3183588346596
Divine: Eros Opus Oils
1.3172860557029
Comme Des Garcons Series 4 Cologne : Vettiveru Comme des Garcons
1.3172221423519
Absinth Nasomatto
1.3169826339523
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.3160542519894
Masculin 2 Vetyver Bourjois
1.3140193395225
Sel de Vetiver The Different Company
1.3132957559682
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3131203740053
Just Cavalli Him Roberto Cavalli
1.3130305039788
Aurum Natura
1.3126768346596
Tobacco Mucho Stephanie de Saint-Aignan
1.3124223271441
Vetiver Etro
1.3108312953139
Veti Vert Miller Harris
1.3108312953139
Tamboti Wood Susanne Lang
1.3087087992927
Up To You for Him Avon
1.3077804173298
Megumi Ayala Moriel
1.3054974252874
Chakra 1 Motivation Aveda
1.3043922086649
Cowgirl Grass D.S. & Durga
1.304348
Vanillaman Neil Morris
1.3040025906278
Cuba Green Cuba Paris
1.3034785119363
Time For Peace Kenzo
1.3021220159151
08 Seylon Odin
1.3015473032714
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.3005747126437
Freedom Sport Tommy Hilfiger
1.300442086649
Estivalia Antonio Puig

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