Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: WOODS AND MOSSES

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Vetiver Perfumes

1.573562450289
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5087668925386
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Christian Dior
1.5050534053061
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5021821522913
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5016079016883
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5014547681942
Vetiver Zara
1.5010719344589
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.5009953677118
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.5009188009647
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.5008805175912
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5008805175912
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.5008422342177
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5007273840971
Intense Vetyver Zara
1.50065081735
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.5006125339765
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5002297002412
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5001914168677
Vetyver Outremer
1.5001531334941
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.5001531334941
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5001531334941
Verde Citro Natura
1.5001531334941
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.5001531334941
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5001148501206
Color Me Blue Milton Lloyd
1.5001148501206
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5001148501206
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5001148501206
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000765667471
Vetiver Proximity Axe
1.5000765667471
Eau de Vetyver Le Galion
1.5000765667471
Eau Intense Rodier
1.5000765667471
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000382833735
Vetiver Bourbon The Merchant of Venice
1.5000382833735
A Day in Grasse Arts&Scents
1.5000382833735
Black Network Lomani
1.5000382833735
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Black Shot Pull and Bear
1.5
Vetiver Candora
1.5
Vetivert Bourbon French Parfums
1.5
Vetiver & Petitgrain Splash Tauerville
1.5
Rudo Khalis
1.4999617166265
Vovo Natura
1.4999234332529
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4999234332529
01 Sweet Wood Desire Body Conjure
1.4999234332529
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.4865562342177
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.4750276371119
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.4655371171088
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4550809672294
Vitrum Sammarco
1.4548683332568
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4545067166265
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4533318221737
Woman Donna Karan
1.4452096674706
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4447119836147
Aktis Korres
1.4348978501206
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.4297577845795
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.429330953256
Eau de Cartier Vetiver Bleu Cartier
1.4292601007236
Athunis Sigilli
1.4291069672294
Madrona House of Matriarch
1.428571
Black Romane
1.4231918501206
Vetiver Jalaine
1.4201057845795
The Natural Gap
1.4186031171088
Symphonie-Passion Unum
1.4182709204854
Woods 2010 Edition Abercrombie & Fitch
1.4170115503618
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.4167052833735
Legni Nature`s
1.416667
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.4157847518089
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.4114645691589
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.4044847002412
Our Story For Him Avon
1.4039134520501
Vetiver Veritas James Heeley
1.401875885303
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.4006897279966
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.4006125339765
Essence No. 6 Vetiver Elie Saab
1.4003445503618
Swiss Army Unlimited Snowpower Victorinox Swiss Army
1.4002297002412
Helen Carnate Smell Bent
1.4001914168677
Argentum Pecksniff`s
1.4001531334941
Legendary Penthouse
1.4000382833735
Club Edition Monte-Carlo Sergio Tacchini
1.4
Arancia MPF
1.4
Vetyver Dolce Il Profumiere
1.3991738197619
Mirror Mirror Collection - Miroir Des Vanites Thierry Mugler
1.3908921335707
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.3899609344589
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3854572342177
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.3847298501206
Amarcord Atelier Flou
1.3846532833735
Aube Drift Parfum de Terre
1.3846532833735
Fleur de Pavot Chaugan
1.3828506838559
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.3827358337353
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.3811252014471
Sultan Vetiver Nishane
1.3806859204854
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.3802803333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.380013067953
Modoc Xerjoff
1.37996081735
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3794408713296
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.3794248501206
Java Wood Premiere Note
1.3777025503618
Capim Cheiroso Companhia da Terra
1.3759188009647
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3751148501206
Lichen & Vetiver Voluspa
1.3750765667471
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3750382833735
Vetivier & Chocolat Hildegard Braukmann
1.375
Tachibana Miya Shinma
1.375
Baron Lui Niche
1.375
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.375
Chernoe Domino Severnoye Siyanie
1.3740986674706
L'Eau de Paille Serge Lutens
1.3720415339765
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3715985017036
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3706762669882
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3705614168677
Vetiver Natura
1.3704848501206
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.36650481735
Eau Fraîche Molinard
1.3644016674706
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.3644002226561
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3638657002412
Madeiras Amazonia Viva
1.3636421031354
onda Vero Profumo
1.3626973677118
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.3622256183148
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.3615232954328
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3605359672294
Divine Attraction Initio Parfums Prives
1.3582880554726
Eau Sauvage Parfum Christian Dior
1.3573344168677
Notte d'amore Pantheon Roma
1.3540895012059
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.3532855503618
Terre de Cèdre Acorelle
1.3522731171088
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.3515807002412
Loup des Steppes Sama
1.348014651583
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3478384684354
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.3461662342177
Emotional Rescue Mark Buxton
1.3444391007236
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.3397675855442
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.3396491889667
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.3389979672294
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3337924004824
Castaña Cloon Keen Atelier
1.3337541171088
Aqua Colonia Vetyver Florascent
1.3337158337353
Shaded Diane Pernet
1.3336392669882
Spice Blend/ Vetiver April Aromatics
1.3335244168677
Sinai Kesling
1.3334478501206
White Leather N°17 The Master Perfumer
1.3334095667471
Maratons (Marathon) Dzintars
1.3333712833735
Bal de Bain Regency Cosmetics
1.3333712833735
Eau Inexplicable Thirdman
1.333333
V G Parfums
1.333333
Unisekt Arae Nico Uytterhaegen
1.333333
West Indies Hi Wildflower Botanica
1.333333
Caspian Angela Flanders
1.333333
Tasman in Grey Code Deco
1.333333
Rock`n`Roll Victorine
1.333333
Dream Dubai Khalis
1.333333
Naceo Noir Lobogal
1.3305786510853
Me Myself & I Egofacto

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