Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: WOODS AND MOSSES

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Vetiver Perfumes

1.5741288615135
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5088461389887
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Christian Dior
1.5049059373431
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5022018773902
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.501506547688
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5014679182601
Vetiver Zara
1.5010816239811
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.5010043651254
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.5009271062696
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.5008884768417
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5008884768417
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.5008498474138
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5007339591301
Intense Vetyver Zara
1.5006953297022
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.5006567002743
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.5006180708464
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5002317765674
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5001931471395
Vetyver Outremer
1.5001545177116
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5001545177116
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5001545177116
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.5001545177116
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.5001545177116
Verde Citro Natura
1.5001158882837
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5001158882837
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5001158882837
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5001158882837
Color Me Blue Milton Lloyd
1.5000772588558
Eau de Vetyver Le Galion
1.5000772588558
Eau Intense Rodier
1.5000772588558
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000386294279
Black Network Lomani
1.5000386294279
Vetiver Bourbon The Merchant of Venice
1.5000386294279
A Day in Grasse Arts&Scents
1.5000386294279
White Leather N°17 The Master Perfumer
1.5000386294279
Vetiver Proximity Axe
1.5000386294279
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Vetivert Bourbon French Parfums
1.5
Vetiver Candora
1.5
01 Sweet Wood Desire Body Conjure
1.5
Rudo Khalis
1.5
Black Shot Pull and Bear
1.5
Vetiver & Petitgrain Splash Tauerville
1.4999613705721
Vovo Natura
1.4999227411442
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.4999227411442
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4865252179859
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.4749829073666
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.4655409237069
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4620401825627
Madrona House of Matriarch
1.455317588558
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4547713058678
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4545063705721
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4533019727663
Woman Donna Karan
1.4447144059953
Aktis Korres
1.437886294279
Vitrum Sammarco
1.4353238119906
Divine Attraction Initio Parfums Prives
1.4348988882837
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.4297685122648
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.4293589836598
Eau de Cartier Vetiver Bleu Cartier
1.4292663297022
Athunis Sigilli
1.428571
Black Romane
1.4231928882837
Vetiver Jalaine
1.4201551416927
The Natural Gap
1.4186069237069
Symphonie-Passion Unum
1.4183037956503
Woods 2010 Edition Abercrombie & Fitch
1.4170146648511
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.416667
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.4158389536833
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.4121951416927
Sultan Vetiver Nishane
1.4113315068181
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.4044867765674
Our Story For Him Avon
1.4019701008228
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.4002317765674
Helen Carnate Smell Bent
1.4001931471395
Legendary Penthouse
1.4001545177116
Swiss Army Unlimited Snowpower Victorinox Swiss Army
1.4
Arancia MPF
1.4
Club Edition Monte-Carlo Sergio Tacchini
1.4
Vetyver Dolce Il Profumiere
1.3992301288678
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.3991618365203
Mirror Mirror Collection - Miroir Des Vanites Thierry Mugler
1.393645841967
Vetiver Veritas James Heeley
1.3920213626144
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.3899706239811
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3846536294279
Amarcord Atelier Flou
1.3846536294279
Aube Drift Parfum de Terre
1.3828551825627
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.382739294279
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.3800353333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.3799667002743
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.379171978213
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.3776284059953
Capim Cheiroso Companhia da Terra
1.3765507956503
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.3759271062696
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3751158882837
Lichen & Vetiver Voluspa
1.3750772588558
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3750386294279
Vetivier & Chocolat Hildegard Braukmann
1.375
Baron Lui Niche
1.375
Chernoe Domino Severnoye Siyanie
1.375
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.375
Tachibana Miya Shinma
1.3720470708464
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3716021308379
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3706790354232
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3705631471395
Vetiver Natura
1.3704858882837
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.367787253409
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3665107002743
Eau Fraîche Molinard
1.3644517847568
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.364408588558
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.3638677765674
Madeiras Amazonia Viva
1.3637518882837
Java Wood Premiere Note
1.3627063651254
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.3622398065438
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.3617047166531
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3612354414185
L'Eau de Paille Serge Lutens
1.3583361336578
Eau Sauvage Parfum Christian Dior
1.3573361471395
Notte d'amore Pantheon Roma
1.3546333188087
onda Vero Profumo
1.3540998828369
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.3532114059953
Terre de Cèdre Acorelle
1.3522769237069
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.3516214059953
Loup des Steppes Sama
1.3486348365589
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3478536948275
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.3444453297022
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.3402051008228
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.3390028119906
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3375895042299
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.336593588558
Emotional Rescue Mark Buxton
1.3337965531348
Castaña Cloon Keen Atelier
1.3337579237069
Aqua Colonia Vetyver Florascent
1.333719294279
Shaded Diane Pernet
1.3336420354232
Spice Blend/ Vetiver April Aromatics
1.3335261471395
Sinai Kesling
1.3334488882837
Summer Rain Raw Spirit Fragrances
1.3334102588558
Maratons (Marathon) Dzintars
1.3333716294279
Eau Inexplicable Thirdman
1.3333716294279
Fleur de Pavot Chaugan
1.3333716294279
Bal de Bain Regency Cosmetics
1.333333
Dream Dubai Khalis
1.333333
V G Parfums
1.333333
Tasman in Grey Code Deco
1.333333
Naceo Noir Lobogal
1.333333
Rock`n`Roll Victorine
1.333333
Unisekt Arae Nico Uytterhaegen
1.333333
Caspian Angela Flanders
1.333333
West Indies Hi Wildflower Botanica
1.3306388365203
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.3286927902036
Cuir Vetiver Yves Rocher
1.3248648119906
Vetyver Nicolai Parfumeur Createur

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