Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: Woods and Mosses

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Perfumes and Colognes With Vetiver

1.5773491681041
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5063622225364
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Dior
1.5041943541166
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5026391441632
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.501649465102
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.501508082379
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5014609548047
Vetiver Zara
1.5011781893586
Royall Vetiver Royall Fragrances
1.5009896790612
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.5008011687638
The Maj House of Matriarch
1.5007540411895
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.5007540411895
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5007069136152
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5005655308921
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.5005184033178
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.5004712757434
Athunis Sigilli
1.5004712757434
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.5004241481691
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.5003770205947
Cologne Intense Borsalino
1.5003770205947
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5002827654461
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.5002827654461
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5002356378717
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.5002356378717
Mix 11 Platinum J
1.5002356378717
Vetiver Jalaine
1.5001885102974
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.500141382723
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5000942551487
Agua de Vetiver Angel Schlesser
1.5000942551487
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.5000942551487
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.5000471275743
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5000471275743
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.4999057448513
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4999057448513
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.4998114897026
Saturnalia Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4877584445073
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.483729617277
Highwayman Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4748766092653
Woman Donna Karan
1.4742966584665
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4673739136152
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.4618207654461
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4585037162449
Vetyver Jo Malone
1.4357255514869
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.4286181275743
Millennium Hope Jivago
1.428571
Black Romane
1.424529574815
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.4189348930204
Vetiver Racinettes Ayala Moriel
1.4169968930204
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.4164747974457
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.4157252305481
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.4156236790612
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone
1.4093604199067
onda Vero Profumo
1.4082101275743
Blood Kiss Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4014138272303
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.4003298930204
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.4002827654461
Rendezvous Night Urban Retreat
1.400141382723
Sweet Tyranny Smell Bent
1.4000471275743
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.3882751893586
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3878039136152
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3862153333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.3851805308921
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3848506378717
Lavande & Vetiver Jeanne en Provence
1.3828714033178
Sandalo del Kashmir & Vetiver Tesori d`Oriente
1.3823720503322
Vetiver Guerlain
1.3818002963382
No. 17 Vetiver & Bergamot Rituals
1.376366699656
The Natural Gap
1.3757540411895
1902 Vetiver Parfums Berdoues
1.3750942551487
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.3713076441397
Les Exclusifs de Chanel Sycomore Chanel
1.3686095102974
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.3678333581224
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.3640601481691
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3564755680758
Woods Abercrombie & Fitch
1.3533651481691
Freedom Sport Tommy Hilfiger
1.3508011687638
Mazzolari Mazzolari
1.3505184033178
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3504712757434
Ellie Ellie Perfume
1.3485137115321
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.3455820411895
Cereus No.5 Cereus
1.3445397780291
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.3356946710495
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.334815124134
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3347445314577
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3339456584665
That's Amore! Lui Gai Mattiolo
1.3336628930204
Me Myself & I Ego Facto
1.3336157654461
Entice Him Ajmal
1.3336157654461
Brass and Bulldog Botanical Cologne Esscentual Alchemy
1.3335215102974
Andy Roddick Parlux
1.3335215102974
Sunrise Urban Men Franck Olivier
1.333474382723
Stra-Vivara Emilio Pucci
1.333333
Caspian Angela Flanders
1.333333
Trapeze Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3332387448513
Aurora Fuoco Micaelangelo
1.3301089645129
Eau Sauvage Parfum Dior
1.3267345228804
Vetiver Etro
1.3234764239125
Silver Man Benetton
1.3202827654461
Bon Zai Ayala Moriel
1.3183705102974
Divine: Eros Opus Oils
1.3181925062915
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.3171085720816
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.3170825520524
Sel de Vetiver The Different Company
1.3137253169329
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.3133954239125
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3127534782506
Vetiver Extraordinaire Frederic Malle
1.3108162757434
Tamboti Wood Susanne Lang
1.3095291069796
Just Cavalli Him Roberto Cavalli
1.3087759342099
Up To You for Him Avon
1.3082104033178
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.3063044324897
Absinth Nasomatto
1.3062802305481
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.3053054856968
08 Seylon Odin
1.3043951275743
Cowgirl Grass D.S. & Durga
1.304348
Vanillaman Neil Morris
1.3039725514869
Cuba Green Cuba Paris
1.3034893375277
Time For Peace Kenzo
1.3031742963382
Eva Santa Maria Novella
1.3017582521797
Narciso Rodriguez For Her Narciso Rodriguez
1.3003298930204
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3003102637259
Comme Des Garcons Series 4 Cologne : Vettiveru Comme des Garcons
1.3001885102974
Wood Portland General Store
1.300141382723
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.3000471275743
Oxbow for Men Oxbow
1.3
Nononsense 1 Nico Uytterhaegen
1.2992292305481
Vetyver Lanvin
1.2985694445073
BOSS The Collection Cotton & Verbena Hugo Boss
1.2977211481691
Vetyver Parfums de Nicolaï
1.2973912551487
Megumi Ayala Moriel
1.2971904445073
L'Homme Infini Divine
1.2956732099533
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.2955318272303
Déclaration Edition Limitée Cartier
1.2952961893586
Hellstone Lush
1.2911310617842
Vince Camuto Femme Vince Camuto
1.2883491859183
Red Vetyver Montale
1.2864703266412
Hermessence Vetiver Tonka Hermes
1.2862795308921
Terre d’Hermes Flacon H 2009 Hermes
1.2861852757434
Racing Ferrari
1.2861381481691
New Experience Man Tom Tailor
1.2860910205948
B-Cool Police
1.2859025102974
Mayor Energy Novaya Zarya
1.2859025102974
Precious One Angela Flanders
1.2859025102974
Courage EDT Förster and Johnsen
1.285714
Patchouli Man Bjork and Berries
1.285714
Orient Al-Rehab
1.2856197448513
Gone with the Smell The Fragrance Kitchen

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