Vetiver

lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
Other names: vetivert, khus

Group: WOODS AND MOSSES

Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

HABITAT

A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.

BOTANY
 

Common name: Vetiver
Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

               Other common names

Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
 

HISTORY and MYTH

Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
 

Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

 

OTHER USES

Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

For desert coolers in summer in North India.
Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

 



 

 

 

Vetiver Perfumes

1.5757625191446
Encre Noire Lalique
1.5087053893946
La Collection Couturier Parfumeur Vetiver Christian Dior
1.5053821702066
Malizia Uomo Vetyver Mirato
1.5027452680249
Mirror Mirror Collection - Miroir Des Vanites Mugler
1.5021673168617
Vetiver Annick Goutal
1.5014809998555
Molecule 03 Escentric Molecules
1.5013726340124
Vetiver Zara
1.5011197803786
Royall Vetiver Royall Lyme Bermuda
1.5010114145355
Turtle Vetiver Back Les Nez
1.5009391706401
Vetiver Santa Maria Novella
1.5008669267447
Vetiver of Haiti The 7 Virtues
1.500830804797
Turtle Vetiver Les Nez
1.5007946828493
4711 Acqua Colonia Vetyver & Bergamot Maurer & Wirtz
1.5007585609016
Mon Numero 3 L`Artisan Parfumeur
1.5007224389539
Intense Vetyver Zara
1.5006863170062
Supercilium O`Driu
1.5006140731108
Zeste de Vétiver Durance en Provence
1.500361219477
Helen Carnate Smell Bent
1.5002528536339
Black Linen Joseph Abboud
1.5002167316862
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.5001806097385
Vetyver Outremer
1.5001806097385
Portrait of New York - Vetiver Ralph Lauren
1.5001444877908
Black Shot Pull and Bear
1.5001444877908
Mix 18 Platinum J
1.5001444877908
Verde Citro Natura
1.5001444877908
Nymph Nina`s Nature
1.5001444877908
El 8 de Gran Vía Loewe
1.5001083658431
Zara Sport 615 Zara
1.5001083658431
Color Me Blue Milton Lloyd
1.5001083658431
Wood Nina`s Nature
1.5001083658431
Vetivert Hové Parfumeur, Ltd.
1.5001083658431
Prurience Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000722438954
Vetiver & Petitgrain Splash Tauerville
1.5000722438954
Love's Torments Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000722438954
Vetivert Bourbon French Parfums
1.5000722438954
Eau de Vetyver Le Galion
1.5000722438954
Vetiver Proximity Axe
1.5000361219477
Hurricane Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.5000361219477
Vetiver Bourbon The Merchant of Venice
1.5000361219477
A Day in Grasse Arts&Scents
1.5000361219477
Black Network Lomani
1.5
Vetiver Candora
1.4999277561046
Aurora Terra Micaelangelo
1.4999277561046
01 Sweet Wood Desire Body Conjure
1.4999277561046
Vetiver Demeter Fragrance
1.4655133414246
Turtle Vetiver Front Les Nez
1.4651140728218
Eau de Vetyver Givenchy
1.4621520731108
Rain Day Derek Lam 10 Crosby
1.4618630975293
Djinn House of Orpheus
1.461538
Vovo Natura
1.4593871212253
Terre d'Hermes Hermes
1.457504219477
Swiss Army Unlimited Snowpower Victorinox Swiss Army
1.4546894877908
Legendary Penthouse
1.4545088780523
Yurei Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.4504334633723
Symphonie-Passion Unum
1.4410263165727
Woman Donna Karan
1.432853219188
Eau de Cartier Vetiver Bleu Cartier
1.4296907803786
Vetiver Sport Guerlain
1.428571
Black Romane
1.4231853658431
Vetiver Jalaine
1.4210708290709
Vetiver Veritas James Heeley
1.4200387803786
The Natural Gap
1.4198308290709
Cowboy Grass D.S. & Durga
1.4181017069788
Woods 2010 Edition Abercrombie & Fitch
1.417028219477
No. 06 Green Bergamot & Vetiver Rituals
1.4167392438954
Legni Nature`s
1.4166308780523
Maharishi Rich Hippie
1.4114364389539
Hornero Fueguia 1833
1.4110390975293
Capim Cheiroso Companhia da Terra
1.4094378724173
La Nuit de l`Homme Yves Saint Laurent
1.4083100486924
Vetiver de Puig Antonio Puig
1.4080571950585
Athunis Sigilli
1.4076959755816
Aktis Korres
1.4018422193325
Racine Maitre Parfumeur et Gantier
1.4010114145355
Black Vetiver Phaedon
1.4000361219477
Eau de Vetyver Le Jardin Retrouve
1.4
Vetyver Dolce Il Profumiere
1.4
Arancia MPF
1.3936306824158
Haitian Vetiver Ermenegildo Zegna
1.3924098536339
Our Story For Him Avon
1.3922565772287
Grey Vetiver Tom Ford
1.3914484877908
Incantation Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab
1.3910175363387
Velvet Vetiver Dolce&Gabbana
1.3907858292154
Muschio di Quercia (Oak Moss) La Via del Profumo
1.3899365364832
Magazine Street Strange Invisible Perfumes
1.3896114389539
Madrona House of Matriarch
1.3863158289265
Vetyver Jo Malone London
1.3854819267447
Vetiver Elizabeth W
1.3846511219477
Aube Drift Parfum de Terre
1.384615
Energy Fusion for Men Avon
1.3829309511631
Vitrum Sammarco
1.382714219477
Baby Musk House of Matriarch
1.3807373333333
Coco Mademoiselle Chanel
1.3805057072677
Divine Attraction Initio Parfums Prives
1.3799240731108
Vetivera Herbacea Parfums Berdoues
1.3796422681693
Modoc Xerjoff
1.3794183658431
Java Wood Premiere Note
1.3750722438954
Lichen & Vetiver Voluspa
1.3750361219477
Vetivier & Chocolat Hildegard Braukmann
1.375
Spring Vetiver 40 Notes Perfume
1.375
Chernoe Domino Severnoye Siyanie
1.3706589755816
That 70`s Smell Botanical Perfume Esscentual Alchemy
1.3705867316862
Vetiver Natura
1.3685293658431
Strictly Night Jil Sander
1.3684900715215
Vetiver Guerlain
1.367517633579
Les Parfums Mythiques - Vetiver Givenchy
1.3667649510186
Onda Voile d`Extrait Vero Profumo
1.3654059754371
Sultan Vetiver Nishane
1.3644306828493
Estivalia Antonio Puig
1.3643584389539
L'Eau de Paille Serge Lutens
1.3637804877908
Les Bohemes: Bootleg Opus Oils
1.3633651460772
onda Vero Profumo
1.3623376094495
Fumidus Profumum Roma
1.3621369998555
Vetiver Bourbon Miller Harris
1.3612554877908
Pink Vetiver Jo Loves
1.3612339257333
Infusion de Vetiver Prada
1.3587077316862
Madeiras Amazonia Viva
1.3577931950585
Eau Fraîche Molinard
1.3572874877908
Notte d'amore Pantheon Roma
1.3562418725618
Eau Sauvage Parfum Christian Dior
1.3556685604681
Nirvana Rose Elizabeth and James
1.3540246584309
Iris & Lady Moore Jo Malone London
1.353302219477
Terre de Cèdre Acorelle
1.352941
Vetiver Indien Paul Emilien
1.3522854633723
Darwin Fueguia 1833
1.3515677316862
Loup des Steppes Sama
1.3477433656986
Aveda Men Pure-formance Aroma Spray Aveda
1.3475883652651
Cuir Vetiver Yves Rocher
1.3464068536339
Caffe Delle Vergini Hilde Soliani
1.3460825609016
Emotional Rescue Mark Buxton
1.3443640731108
Cuba Grey Cuba Paris
1.3441034616385
Eau de Vétyver L`Occitane en Provence
1.3389677072677
Osmo Scents Vetiver de Java Il Profvmo
1.3342360486924
Eau du Kashmir Rituals
1.334163804797
Vetiver de la Reunion L`Erbolario
1.3337664633723
Castaña Cloon Keen Atelier
1.3337303414246
Vetyver Florascent
1.3337303414246
Shaded Diane Pernet
1.3336219755816
Eau Inexplicable Thirdman
1.3336219755816
Spice Blend/ Vetiver April Aromatics
1.3336219755816
179-001 Informal Scent Spectator
1.3335136097385
Sinai Kesling
1.3334413658431
Yuki Illuminum
1.3334052438954
Maratons (Marathon) Dzintars
1.3334052438954
A & F 1892 Cobalt Abercrombie & Fitch
1.3333691219477
Bal de Bain Regency Cosmetics
1.333333
Rock`n`Roll Victorine
1.333333
West Indies Hi Wildflower Botanica
1.333333
Dream Dubai Khalis
1.333333
Unisekt Arae Nico Uytterhaegen

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